PolOek-Literatur Besuchen Sie uns auf Facebook Home | Status | Ende | AAA
Schließen


Literatur zur Politischen Ökonomie
Folgende Dokumente wurden in der Mehrwert & Co. Datenbank gefunden:
Suchauftrag: Auswahl zeigen
Treffer:1
Anfang der Liste Ende der Liste
1. Verfasser-/Urheberwerk
Dokument in die Merkliste Dokument in den Download-Korb
Referenz:
UNCTAD (2004): World Investment Report
stabile URL:
www.pol-oek.de/objekt_start.fau?prj=poloeklit&zeig=384
Fremd-URL (ohne Gewähr):
im Mehrwert & Co Archiv als:
PDF
aus dem Mehrwert & Co. Archiv:
Verf./Hrsg./KS:
Titel:
World Investment Report 2004
Untertitel:
The Shift Towards Services
Ort: Verl.:
Jahr:
2004
s. Infos:
 
Deskribierung:
Inhalt:
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PREFACE
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.
ABBREVIATIONS
OVERVIEW .
PAR AR ART T ONE
FDI SET T TO O RECO RECOVER VER

CHAPTER I. GLOBAL FDI GROWTH SET TO RESUME
A. FDI inflows down again - but recovery is on its way
1. An uneven picture
2. International production continues to grow
3. Many countries have not realized their potential
a. Indices of Inward FDI Performance and Potential
b. The Outward FDI Performance Index .
B. Outward FDI from developing countries is becoming important .
C. Changing sectoral distribution .
D. Prospects: growth set to resume .
Annex to chapter I. How transnational are TNCs?.

CHAPTER II. REGIONAL FDI TRENDS: A MIXED PICTURE
A. Developing countries
1. Africa: a turnaround
a. Inflows regain momentum .
b. Policies increasingly liberal
c. Natural resources and services dominate
d. Prospects are positive
2. Asia and the Pacific: a rebound .
a. A mild upturn
b. Policies improved further
c. Services FDI on the rise
d. Promising prospects .
3. Latin America and the Caribbean: another disappointing year
a. A continuous decline
b. Policy developments: continued liberalization
c. Sectoral patterns .
d. Better prospects ahead .
B. Central and Eastern Europe: awaiting the boom .
1. Inward FDI sharply down, outward FDI sharply up .
a. Inward FDI: new EU members performed less well than other CEE countries .
b. FDI outflows: robust increase
2. Implications of EU membership for national policy .
3. A shift towards services brings about structural change
4. Prospects: again sunny .

C. Developed countries: the decline continues, but prospects are good . 80
1. Uneven trends . 80
2. Policy responses . 85
3. Services dominate 88
4. Prospects: FDI will pick up again, but not everywhere . 89

PART T TWO THE SHIFT T TOWARDS WARDS SERVICES

CHAPTER III. THE GROWTH OF FDI IN SERVICES AND ITS IMPLICATIONS. 97
A. Changing patterns of FDI in services . 97
1. The growth of services FDI and its changing mix 97
2. Changing distribution among home and host countries . 99
a. Outward FDI 99
b. Inward FDI . 101
3. Transnationalization is lower in the services sector and differs by industry and country 101
4. Non-equity forms of investment are common in services 104
B. Players and driving forces 105
1. Goods TNCs invest in services 107
2. Service TNCs are expanding rapidly 107
a. The players 107
b. M&As take the lead in entry patterns . 111
c. Catching up with manufacturing TNCs?. 114
3. Drivers and determinants . 115
4. Most services FDI is still market-seeking – but this is changing 118
C. Impact on host countries. 123
1. Financial resources and balance of payments . 126
2. Services provision, competition and crowding out . 128
3. Technology, knowledge and skills . 132
4. Export competitiveness 135
5. Employment 137
6. An assessment. 137
Annex to chapter III. What are services? Classifying invisibles 145

CHAPTER IV. THE OFFSHORING OF CORPORATE SERVICE FUNCTIONS: THE NEXT GLOBAL SHIFT?.147
A. The tradability revolution 148
1. The tradability of services . 148
2. Limitations to offshoring . 149
3. Is the globalization of IT-enabled services different from that of manufacturing?. 152
B. Future prospects for the offshoring of services 153
C. Outsourcing vs. captive business models . 156
1. What determines how offshoring is undertaken? . 156
2. A new breed of TNCs provides services globally 157
D. Search for competitiveness drives corporate offshoring 159
1. FDI related to the offshoring of services is still concentrated . 159
2. Cost reduction and improved quality are key drivers . 164
3. European TNCs offshore less than their United States rivals . 168
E. Impact on host countries. 169
1. India 169
2. Other Asian locations . 174
3. Latin America and the Caribbean 174
4. Africa 174
5. Central and Eastern Europe . 175
F. Implications for home countries . 176

PART T THREE NATIONNAL AND INTERNATIONAL POLICY CHALLENGES

INTRODUCTION183

CHAPTER V. NATIONAL POLICIES185
A. Host-country policies on services are key to development gains. 185
1. Countries are opening up to FDI in services 185
2. Benefits from FDI in infrastructure-related services: the case of privatization 187
3. Promotion of FDI in services . 194
a. Investment promotion agencies increasingly target services 194
b. The role of incentives 196
c. EPZs in developing countries see potential in services . 201
d. Infrastructure and skills development . 203
e. Regulatory issues related to data protection and intellectual property . 207
4. Benefiting more from services FDI: upgrading and linkages . 207
B. Home countries: the challenge of adapting 208
1. The reaction to offshoring in the United States . 209
2. The European response . 210
a. The United Kingdom 210
b. Other European responses . 211
3. Reactions in other developed countries . 212
4. Meeting the challenge of adapting 212
C. Conclusions 212

CHAPTER VI. NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL POLICIES: A COMPLEX AND DYNAMIC INTERACTION 221
A. The growing multifaceted network of services IIAs 221
1. The evolving nature of approaches covering FDI in services 221
2. Salient features . 225
B. Complexities and challenges 231
C. National and international policies: a complex and dynamic interaction 233
D. Conclusion: striking a development-oriented balance 235
REFERENCES . 243
SELECTED UNCTAD PUBLICATIONS ON TNCs AND FDI . 423
QUESTIONNAIRE . 437

Boxes
I.1. Developments in the world′s 100 largest TNCs in 2002 11
I.2. South-South FDI flows rose in the 1990s . 20
I.3. The top 50 TNCs from developing economies . 21
I.4. FDI flows from Hong Kong (China) 26
I.5. FDI prospects: reports paint a rosy picture 34
I.6. Global Investment Prospects Assessment by UNCTAD . 35
II.1. Africa: examples of FDI-related policy changes in selected countries, 2003-2004 43
II.2 Algeria: policy reforms may keep FDI high . 43
II.3. Mauritania: better opportunities set to boost FDI . 44
II.4. Private mobile operators in Africa . 46
II.5. The Libyan Arab Jamahiriya: the end of sanctions and the resumption of FDI . 48
II.6. Asia and the Pacific: examples of efforts to improve the investment climate, 2003-2004 53
II.7. Cambodia and Nepal: investment guides highlight opportunities 53
II.8. The Closer Economic Partnership Arrangement between China and Hong Kong (China) . 54
II.9. Liberalization of services in the ASEAN subregion: implications for FDI flows . 55
II.10. Liberalization of services in China: implications for FDI flows 56
II.11. Promising FDI prospects for Turkey 57
II.12. Is the FDI relocation from Mexico′s maquila industries ending? 61
II.13. Why privatization is losing popularity in LAC . 63
II.14. Two major players in the telecom industry. 66
II.15. Privatization in the electric power market: the case of Endesa 67
II.16. Slovakia: a new hub for European automobile production 70
II.17. EU enlargement has not led to large-scale FDI diversion 72
II.18. The 25 largest TNCs of CEE . 73
II.19. Norilsk Nickel: the fourth largest Russian TNC 74
II.20. BITs between the United States and the new EU member States and candidate countries 76
II.21. Can Japan double its inward FDI stock by the end of 2006? 82
II.22. France adopts new measures to attract FDI and skills 87
II.23. Free Trade Area of the Americas 88
III.1. International delivery modes in goods and services . 98
III.2 Transnational hotels: non-equity participation on the rise. 106
III.3. Airlines: little FDI, many alliances 108
III.4. Accountants network led by the Big Four 110
III.5. Legal partners 112
III.6. Tax havens – no longer tax heavens? 115
III.7. Telecoms: the emergence of a global industry . 117
III.8. An electrifying rise . 119
III.9. Water services: falling in developing countries and rising in developed ones? . 121
III.10. Postal services go transnational 125
III.11. Insuring and reinsuring the world 129
III.12. Consumer goods anyone? The rise and spread of retail TNCs 131
III.13. FDI by sogo sosha: shifting from manufacturing to services 133
III.14. The world′s bankers 136
III.15. FDI in telecommunications: effects on supply and costs in host economies 138
III.16. The pluses and minuses of TNB participation . 140
IV.1. Developing countries are exporting a bewildering array of services . 150
IV.2. Skills categorization of traded services . 151
IV.3. Smaller TNCs are offshoring too 155
IV.4. Outsourcing at the national level . 156
IV.5. Nortel Networks′ offshoring to India 171
IV.6. Upgrading offshored service operations in India: the case of GECIS . 173
IV.7. Procter & Gamble′s shared service operations for the Americas 175
V.1. Prudential regulation of the entry of foreign banks 188
V.2. Check-list for privatizing services through FDI 190
V.3. Policies to promote universal access to services in telecommunications 192
V.4. FDI-related privatization and electricity reform in Bolivia . 194
V.5. New Brunswick: an early mover attracting call centres . 197
V.6. Singapore: going for headquarters . 198
V.7. The Republic of Korea: a regional business services hub for North-East Asia? 199
V.8. Investment subsidies in the Gambia . 200

V.9. Services sought by Kenya′s EPZs 203
V.10. Jamaica′s teleports 204
V.11. Digital networks in Ireland: a locational advantage . 205
V.12. Social dialogues in the finance industry . 211
V.13. ILO Action Programme on Financial Services Restructuring: promoting best practices in
outsourcing and work relocation 213
V.14. The debate on offshoring – a case of déjà vu? . 215
VI.1. What difference do services IIAs make? . 222
VI.2. The GATS and FDI in services . 223
VI.3. Approaches to BITs and FDI in services . 224
VI.4. The GATS and subsidies 227
VI.5. Individual service industries in the WTO . 230
VI.6. IIAs and public services . 233
Figures
I.1. FDI inflows, global and by group of countries, 1980-2003 . 3
I.2. FDI flows and gross fixed capital formation, by group of countries, 1990-2003 4
I.3. Total resource flows to developing countries, by type of flow, 1990-2003 5
I.4. Growth trends in FDI and total ODA flows to LDCs, 1990-2002 5
I.5. FDI inflows, by type of financing, 1990-2003. 7
I.6. Number of BITs and DTTs concluded, cumulative and year to year, 1990-2003 8
I.7. Transnationality index of host economies, 2001 . 10
I.8. Inward FDI Performance Index, by developing region, 1988-1990, 1993-1995,
2000-2002, 2001-2003 . 13
I.9. Main winners and losers in the Inward FDI Performance ranking, 1996-1998 to
2001-2003 . 15
I.10. FDI outflows from developing countries, by region, 1980-2003 19
I.11. Africa: FDI outflows and their share in total developing-country outflows, 1980-2003 . 24
I.12. South Africa: outward FDI stock and its share in GDP, 1990-2003 . 25
I.13. Asia and the Pacific: FDI outflows and their share in total developing-country outflows,
1980-2003 . 25
I.14. China: outward FDI stock and its share in GDP, 1990-2003 . 27
I.15. India: outward FDI stock and its share in GDP, 1990-2003 27
I.16. Latin America and the Caribbean: FDI outflows and their share in total developingcountry
outflows, 1980-2003 28
I.17. Brazil: outward FDI stock and its share in GDP, 1990-2003 28
I.18. Sectoral distribution of FDI stock in the world, developed and developing countries and
CEE, 1990, 2002 . 30
I.19. Overall FDI prospects, 2004-2007, as reported by TNCs, location experts and IPAs 32
I.20. FDI prospects by industry, 2004-2005, as reported by location experts . 33
I.21. Corporate functions expected to be relocated, 2004-2005, as reported by TNCs and
location experts . 33
I.22. Policy responses, 2004-2005, as reported by IPAs 34
II.1. LDCs: FDI inflows and their share in gross fixed capital formation, 1985-2003 . 40
II.2. Africa: FDI inflows and their share in gross fixed capital formation, 1985-2003 40
II.3. Africa: top 10 recipients of FDI inflows, 2002, 2003 41
II.4. Africa: total external resource flows, by type of flow, 1990-2002 42
II.5. Africa: number of BITs and DTTs concluded, 1990-2003 . 45
II.6. Africa: cellular mobile phone subscribers, 1996-2003 . 45
II.7. Africa: prospects for FDI inflows, 2004-2005, as reported by TNCs 49
II.8. Africa: expected policy measures to attract FDI, 2004-2005, as reported by IPAs . 49
II.9. Asia and the Pacific: FDI inflows and their share in gross fixed capital formation,
1985-2003 . 50
II.10. Asia and the Pacific: top 10 recipients of FDI inflows, 2002, 2003 51
II.11. Asia and the Pacific: number of BITs and DTTs concluded, 1990-2003 . 54
II.12. Asia and the Pacific: prospects for FDI inflows, 2004-2005, as reported by TNCs and
location experts . 58

II.13. Asia and the Pacific: expected policy measures to attract FDI, 2004-2005, as reported by
IPAs . 58
II.14. LAC: FDI inflows and their share in gross fixed capital formation, 1985-2003 . 59
II.15. LAC: top 10 recipients of FDI inflows, 2002, 2003 . 60
II.16. LAC: FDI inflows from major home countries as a percentage of world total,
1995-2002 . 60
II.17. LAC: trends in FDI inflows and gross fixed capital formation in selected economies,
1990-2003 . 62
II.18. LAC: number of BITs and DTTs concluded, 1990-2003 64
II.19. LAC: sectoral distribution of inward FDI stock, selected countries, 1986, 1996, 2002. 65
II.20. Brazil and Mexico: changes in the sectoral structure of FDI inflows, 1996-2003 65
II.21. LAC: prospects for FDI inflows, 2004-2005, as reported by TNCs. 68
II.22. LAC: expected policy measures to attract FDI, 2004-2005, as reported by IPAs . 68
II.23. CEE: FDI inflows and their share in gross fixed capital formation, 1990-2003 69
II.24. CEE: top 10 recipients of FDI inflows, 2002, 2003 . 69
II.25. CEE: FDI flows as a percentage of gross fixed capital formation, top 10 countries,
2001-2003 . 73
II.26. CEE: number of BITs and DTTs concluded, 1990-2003 75
II.27. CEE: prospects for FDI inflows, 2004-2005, as reported by TNCs and location experts 79
II.28. CEE: expected policy measures to attract FDI, 2004-2005, as reported by IPAs 79
II.29. Developed countries: FDI flows, top 10 countries, 2002, 2003 81
II.30. United States: balance of trade and net flows of FDI and portfolio investment,
1986-2003 . 82
II.31. Developed countries: FDI inflows and their share in gross fixed capital formation,
1985-2003 . 84
II.32. Developed countries: FDI flows as a percentage of gross fixed capital formation,
top 10 countries, 2001-2003 85
II.33. Developed countries: number of BITs and DTTs concluded, 1990-2003 87
II.34. Profits of the United States′ Fortune 500 firms, 2000-2003 . 90
II.35. Developed countries: prospects for FDI inflows, 2004-2005, as reported by TNCs and
location experts . 90
II.36. Developed countries: expected policy measures to attract FDI, 2004-2005, as reported
by IPAs 91
III.1. Share of foreign affiliates in the total services and manufacturing sales, value added and
employment of selected host economies, various years . 102
IV.1. Low costs lead the location determinants of call centre-FDI projects in developing
countries and economies in transition, 2002-2003 166
IV.2. Low costs lead the location determinants of FDI projects in shared service centres in
developing countries and economies in transition, 2002-2003 . 166
IV.3. Market growth leads the location determinants of IT services FDI projects in developing
countries and economies in transition, 2002-2003 166
IV.4. Market growth leads the location determinants of regional headquarters FDI projects in
developing countries and economies in transition, 2002-2003 . 166
V.1. Reservations by sector in selected IIAs 186
V.2. Reservations on investment in services, by industry, selected IIAs . 186
V.3. Interregional submarine cable capacity, March 2004 206
Tables
I.1. Cross-border M&As with values of over $1 billion, 1987-2003 6
I.2. Changes in national regulations on FDI, 1991-2003 8
I.3. Selected indicators of FDI and international production, 1982-2003 9
I.4. Inward FDI Performance Index, by region, 1988-2003 12
I.5. Rankings by Inward FDI Performance Index, 2001-2003 14
I.6. Inward FDI Potential Index, by group of economies, average scores, 1988-2002 15
I.7. Top 25 rankings by the Inward FDI Potential Index, 1988-2002 . 15
I.8. Matrix of inward FDI performance and potential, 1988-1990, 1993-1995, 2000-2002 17
I.9. Outward FDI Performance Index for the 20 leading investor economies, 1988-2003 18
I.10. FDI outflows as a percentage of gross fixed capital formation in selected
developing economies, 2001-2003 . 19
I.11. FDI from developing economies, by region and major economy, 1980-2003 24

II.1. Africa: frequency distribution of host countries, by range of FDI inflows, 1999-2003 . 41
II.2. Africa: country distribution of FDI inflows, by range, 2003 41
II.3. Asia and the Pacific: frequency distribution of host economies,
by range of FDI inflows, 1999-2003 . 50
II.4. Asia and the Pacific: economy distribution of FDI inflows, by range, 2003 . 51
II.5. Asia and the Pacific: distribution of FDI stock, by industry, selected
Asian economies, 1995, 2002 . 55
II.6. LAC: frequency distribution of host economies, by range of FDI inflows, 1999-2003 . 59
II.7. LAC: economy distribution of FDI inflows, by range, 2003 . 59
II.8. CEE: frequency distribution of host countries, by range of FDI inflows, 1999-2003 70
II.9. CEE: country distribution of FDI inflows, by range, 2003 . 72
II.10. The top 10 destinations of FDI projects from the Russian Federation, 2002-2003 . 74
II.11. Gross monthly average salary, selected economies, adjusted to productivity, 1998-2002 . 77
II.12. Corporate tax rates in selected economies, 2003 and 2004: the highest and the lowest 78
II.13. CEE: foreign affiliates dominate banking assets, 2001 78
II.14. Largest CEE recipients of services FDI projects, 2002-2003 79
II.15. Developed countries: frequency distribution of host countries,
by range of FDI inflows, 1999-2003 . 84
II.16. Developed countries: country distribution of FDI inflows, by range, 2003 . 84
II.17. Examples of policy changes in developed countries, 2003-2004 . 86
III.1. Distribution of FDI stock in services, by industry, 1990, 2002 99
III.2. Distribution of FDI stock in services, by group of economies, 1990, 2002 . 100
III.3. Shares of value added, employment and sales of foreign affiliates of home-based TNCs
in home-economy totals, by sector of parent firm, selected countries and years 102
III.4. Host economies with penetration ratio of foreign banks exceeding 70%, 2001 104
III.5. Royalty receipts of TNCs in Austria, Germany, Japan and the United States, 1989-2002 . 113
III.6. Foreign affiliates, by sector of foreign affiliates and parent firms,
Germany, Japan and the United States, selected data, various years . 114
III.7. Shares of selected industries in cross-border M&A sales in services, 1988-2003 . 118
III.8. The geographic composition of global cross-border M&A deals in services, 1987-2003 120
III.9. The degree of transnationalization of United States non-bank TNCs,
by sector, 1986, 1992, 2000 124
III.10. The top TNCs, by sector: indicators of transnationality, 1995, 2002 127
III.11. Trade in selected services and the share of intra-firm trade, United States, 1997-2002 128
III.12. The relative importance of intra-firm trade in services of
United States non-bank TNCs, selected years 130
III.13. Average compensation of employees in United States parent firms and their affiliates . 132
IV.1. Offshoring and outsourcing – some definitions . 148
IV.2. Growth in imports by the United States of selected services within the category of
business, professional and technical services, 1992-2002 . 151
IV.3. Plans of TNCs in the ICT industry for offshoring of services to India,
based on information available at the end of 2003 154
IV.4. Contract service provider TNCs offering call/contact centre services, 2003 . 158
IV.5. Definitions of export-oriented FDI projects related to offshored services . 159
IV.6. Selected acquisitions of Indian firms by foreign firms, 2003-2004 . 160
IV.7. Export-oriented FDI projects in call centres, shared service centres, IT services and
regional headquarters, by destination, 2002-2003 . 162
IV.8. Export-oriented FDI projects in services, by industry, 2002-2003. 164
IV.9. Selected offshoring cases, United Kingdom, 2003-2004 168
IV.10. Leading foreign affiliates in India′s IT-enabled service industry, 2003-2004 172
IV.11. Service lines in IT-enabled services in India, 2001-2004 172
IV.12. Export intensity of foreign and local firms in India′s software industry, by state, 2002/03 . 173
V.1. Service industries targeted by IPAs, 2004 195
V.2. Services functions targeted by IPAs, 2004 . 196
V.3. Subsidies used in different service industries 200
V.4. Specific conditions of the Czech incentives scheme for business-support services and
technology centres, 2004 . 201
V.5. Types of service activities attracted by an EPZ in India, 2004 . 202
V.6. Regional distribution of EPZs targeting services, 2004 . 202
V.7. Summary list of United States states with proposed legislation restricting offshoring, 2004 . 210
VI.1. Examples of services IIAs prohibiting various types of performance
requirements pertaining to services, 2004 228

II.12.1. FDI inflows into Mexico′s maquila industry, 1996-2003 . 61
II.14.1. Geographical presence and expansion of foreign affiliates of Telefónica in LAC, 2004 66
II.15.1. Geographical presence and expansion of foreign affiliates of Endesa in LAC, 2004 67
III.7.1. Private investment in the telecom industry in the developing
countries and CEE, 1990-2002 117
III.8.1. Private investment in the electricity industry of developing economies, 1984-2002 119
III.9.1. Concessions dominate annual private investment in water and sewerage
in developing countries, 1987-2002 . 121
III.13.1. The share of the eight sogo shosha in Japan′s external trade, 1981-2002 . 133
Box tables
I.1.1. Snapshot of the world′s 100 largest TNCs, 2001, 2002 11
I.3.1. The top 50 non-financial TNCs from developing economies,
ranked by foreign assets, 2002 22
I.3.2. Snapshot of the top 50 TNCs from developing economies, 2002 . 21
I.4.1. Hong Kong (China): outward FDI stock at market value, 2000-2002 26
II.4.1. Africa′s largest mobile operators, ranked by the number of subscribers in the region, 2003 47
II.10.1. China: selected schedules for the liberalization of services and ownership control 56
II.14.1. Telefónica′s market position for mobile phones, including acquisition of
BellSouth Mobile Assets 66
II.15.1. Endesa′s presence in LAC, 2004. 67
II.17.1. FDI inflows into CEE countries acceding to the EU in 2004,
compared with the EU-15, 1995-2003 . 72
II.18.1. Snapshot of the top 25 non-financial TNCs from CEE, 2001, 2002 . 73
II.20.1. Specific BITs of new EU members and candidate countries with the United States . 76
III.2.1. Selected leading hotel chains: modes of operation, 2003 . 106
III.3.1. FDI by, and in, airlines, by region, 2004 . 108
III.3.2. Alliances among airlines, 2001 . 108
III.4.1. The top ten accounting firms, ranked by total revenue, 2003 110
III.4.1. United States outward FDI in legal services, 1988-2002 . 112
III.9.1. The three largest TNCs in the water service industry, 1988-2003 122
III.10.1. The big four of the postal courier industry, selected indicators, 1990, 2003 125
III.10.2. Selected large cross-border M&As by European postal operators, 1995-2003 . 125
V.6.1. Industry breakdown of the Singapore EDB cluster HQs, January 2004. 198
V.9.1. Selected companies engaged in EPZ export services, April 2004 . 203
Annex A. Additional text figures
A.I.1. FDI flows, by sector, 1989-1991 and 2001-2002 . 263
A.I.2. FDI inflows as a percentage of GDP in selected developed, developing and
CEE economies, by sector, 1992-2002 . 264
A.III.1. Services FDI inflows as a percentage of GDP in selected host developing
and CEE economies, by individual service industry, 1992-2002 268
Annex A. Additional text tables
A.I.1. Cross-border M&A deals with values of over $1 billion completed in 2003 271
A.I.2. Number of parent corporations and foreign affiliates, by region and economy,
latest available year . 273
A.I.3. The world′s top 100 non-financial TNCs, ranked by foreign assets, 2002 276
A.I.4. The world′s 100 largest non-financial TNCs by country of origin and industry: number of
host countries, Network Spread Index (NSI) and Internationalization Index (II), 2002 . 279
A.I.5. Inward FDI Performance Index rankings, 1988-2003 . 281
A.I.6. Raw data and scores for the variables included in the UNCTAD Inward
FDI Potential Index, 2000-2002 285

A.I.7. Inward FDI Potential Index rankings, 1988-2002 289
A.I.8. Outward FDI Performance Index rankings, 1988-2003 . 291
A.I.9. Outward FDI Performance Index of the top 20 economies, 1988-2003 295
A.I.10. South Africa: outward FDI stock, by geographical destination, 1990-2002 296
A.I.11. South Africa: some large investments in Africa by South African companies,
2000-2003 297
A.I.12. China′s approved FDI outflows, top 30 destinations, 1979-2002 298
A.I.13. Geographical distribution of approved Indian outward FDI, fiscal years 1996-2003 299
A.I.14. Industry distribution of approved Indian outward FDI, fiscal years 1999-2003 . 300
A.I.15. Top 15 IT software and service exporters from India, fiscal year 2002-2003 . 300
A.I.16. Outward FDI stock of Brazil, by sector and industry, 2002 . 301
A.I.17. Principal location targets of Brazilian firms planning to invest abroad, 2001 301
A.I.18. Estimated world inward FDI stock, by sector and industry, 1990 and 2002 302
A.I.19. Estimated world outward FDI stock, by sector and industry, 1990 and 2002 . 303
A.I.20. Inward FDI in services, 1990-2002 . 304
A.I.21. Outward FDI in services, 1990-2002 306
A.I.22. Share of services in total inward FDI, 1990-2002 307
A.I.23. Share of services in total outward FDI, 1990-2002 . 309
A.I.24. Network Spread Index (NSI) and Internationalization Index (II) of the world′s 100
largest non-financial TNCs, by home economy, 2002 . 310
A.I.25. Network Spread Index (NSI) and Internationalization Index (II) of the world′s 100
largest non-financial TNCs, by industry, 2002 310
A.I.26. The world′s largest non-financial TNCs: percentage share of foreign affiliates in each
region, by home economy, 2002 311
A.I.27. The world′s 100 largest non-financial TNCs: percentage share of foreign affiliates
in each region, by industry, 2002 312
A.I.28. Regional composition of directors on the boards of 42 of the largest 100 TNCs,
grouped by home region/economy, 2003 313
A.II.1. Selected bilateral, regional and inter-regional agreements containing FDI provisions
concluded or under negotiation, 2003-2004 314
A.II.2. The top 25 non-financial TNCs from Central and Eastern Europe,
ranked by foreign assets, 2002 . 317
A.III.1. Estimated world inward FDI, average annual flows,
by sector and industry, 1989-1991 and 2001-2002 . 318
A.III.2. Estimated world outward FDI, average annual flows,
by sector and industry, 1989-1991 and 2001-2002 . 319
A.III.3. Comparison of values of services delivered by foreign affiliates
and by trade in selected countries, various years . 320
A.III.4. Penetration ratios of majority-owned foreign bank affiliates in
banking, by host economy, 2001 . 321
A.III.5. The world′s selected 15 largest services TNCs in eight industries, 2003 322
A.III.6. The 20 largest legal TNCs, ranked by number of lawyers, 2002 . 326
A.III.7. The 30 largest telecom TNCs in the world, ranked by the number
of host economies, 2002 327
A.III.8. The world′s largest electricity TNCs, ranked by foreign assets, 2002 328
A.III.9. The world′s 10 largest insurance and reinsurance TNCs, ranked by foreign income, 2003 329
A.III.10. The world′s 20 largest retail TNCs, ranked by foreign sales, 2002 330
A.III.11. Trading for Japan: the seven sogo shosha, ranked by foreign sales, 2003 . 331
A.III.12. The world′s 20 largest TNBs, ranked by number of host countries, 2002 . 332
A.III.13. Cross-border M&A sales and purchases in the services sector and
their share in totals, by group of economies, 1987-2003 333
A.III.14. The top 100 M&A deals, by home and host country or region, 1987-2003 . 334
A.III.15. Cross-border M&A sales in services, by industry, 1988-2003 . 335
A.III.16. Cross-border M&A sales/purchases in services, by region, 1987-2003 336
A.III.17. Profit remittances to parent firms by Japanese and United States
foreign affiliates, by sector, 1994-2002 337
A.III.18. Profit remittances as a percentage of total income of foreign affiliates of
Japanese and United States TNCs, by sector . 338
A.IV.1. Sources of export-oriented FDI projects in services in 2002-2003 . 339
A.IV.2. Top investors in export-oriented FDI projects in services,
by number of projects, 2002-2003. 340
A.V.1. Service activities in EPZs . 341

Annex B: Statistical annex
DEFINITIONS AND SOURCES. 345
A. General d 345
1. Transnational corporations 345
2. Foreign direct investment 345
3. Non-equity forms of investment 346
B. Availability, limitations and estimates of FDI data presented in WIR 346
1. FDI flows . 346
a. FDI inflows 348
b. FDI outflows 354
c. Notes of FDI flows . 360
2. FDI stock . 360
C. Data revisions and updates 363
D. Data verification 363
E. Definitions and sources of the data in annex tables B.5 and B.6 364
F. Definitions and sources of the data on
cross-border M&As in annex tables B.7-B.10 365
Annex tables
B.1. FDI inflows, by host region and economy, 1992-2003 . 367
B.2. FDI outflows, by home region and economy, 1992-2003 372
B.3. FDI inward stock, by host region and economy, 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995,
2000, 2002, 2003 . 376
B.4. FDI outward stock, by home region and economy, 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995,
2000, 2002, 2003 . 382
B.5. Inward and outward FDI flows as a percentage of gross fixed capital formation,
by region and economy, 1992-2003 . 387
B.6. Inward and outward FDI stocks as a percentage of gross domestic product,
by region and economy, 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2002, 2003 . 399
B.7. Cross-border M&A sales, by region/economy of seller, 1988-2003 411
B.8. Cross-border M&A purchases, by region/economy of purchaser, 1988-2003 416
B.9. Cross-border M&As, by sector and industry of seller, 1988-2003 . 420
B.10. Cross-border M&As, by sector and industry of purchaser, 1988-2003 . 421


Anfang der Liste Ende der Liste