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Literatur zur Politischen Ökonomie
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UNCTAD (2013): World Investment Report
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Titel:
World Investment Report 2013
Untertitel:
Global Value Chains: Investment and Trade for Development
Ort: Verl.:
Jahr:
2013
Deskribierung:
Inhalt:
PREFACE iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iv
ABBREVIATIONS viii
KEY MESSAGES .. ix
OVERVIEW . xi

CHAPTER I. GLOBAL INVESTMENT TRENDS 1

A. GLOBAL TRENDS: THE FDI RECOVERY FALTERS 2
1. Current trends . 2
a. FDI by geographical distribution 2
b. FDI by mode and sector/industry .. 7
c. FDI by selected types of investors . 10
d. FDI and offshore finance . 15
2. Global FDI prospects in 2013–2015 .. 18
a. General FDI prospects .. 18
b. FDI prospects by sector/industry 20
c. FDI prospects by home region . 21
d. FDI prospects by host region 22
B. INTERNATIONAL PRODUCTION .. 23
1. Overall trends 23
2. Repositioning: the strategic divestment, relocation and reshoring of foreign operations .. 26
C. FDI INCOME AND RATES OF RETURN .. 31
1. Trends in FDI income 32
a. General trends .. 32
b. Rates of return .. 32
c. Reinvested earnings versus repatriated earnings .. 33
2. Impacts of FDI income on the balance of payments of host countries 34
3. Policy implications . 36

CHAPTER II. REGIONAL TRENDS IN FDI .. 37

INTRODUCTION . 38
A. REGIONAL TRENDS 39
1. Africa .. 39
2. East and South-East Asia .. 44
vi World Investment Report 2013: Global Value Chains: Investment and Trade for Development
3. South Asia .. 49
4. West Asia . 53
5. Latin America and the Caribbean .. 57
6. Transition economies 63
7. Developed countries . 67
B. TRENDS IN STRUCTURALLY WEAK, VULNERABLE AND SMALL ECONOMIES . 73
1. Least developed countries 73
2. Landlocked developing countries . 78
3. Small island developing States .. 84

CHAPTER III. RECENT POLICY DEVELOPMENTS .. 91

A. NATIONAL INVESTMENT POLICIES 92
1. Overall trends . 92
2. Industry-specific investment policies .. 94
a. Services sector . 94
b. Strategic industries . 95
3. Screening of cross-border M&As .. 96
4. Risk of investment protectionism 100
B. INTERNATIONAL INVESTMENT POLICIES 101
1. Ttrends in the conclusion of IIAs . 101
a. Continued decline in treaty-making . 101
b. Factoring in sustainable development .. 102
2. Trends in the negotiation of IIAs .. 103
a. Regionalism on the rise 103
b. Systemic issues arising from regionalism. 105
3. IIA regime in transition .. 107
a. Options to improve the IIA regime . 107
b. Treaty expirations 108
4. Investor–State arbitration: options for reform .. 110
a. ISDS cases continue to grow .. 110
b. Mapping five paths for reform . 111

CHAPTER IV. GLOBAL VALUE CHAINS: INVESTMENT AND TRADE FOR DEVELOPMENT .. 121

INTRODUCTION .. 122
A. GVCS AND PATTERNS OF VALUE ADDED TRADE AND INVESTMENT 123
1. Value added trade patterns in the global economy .. 123
2. Value added trade patterns in the developing world 133
3. FDI and the role of TNCs in shaping GVCs 134
B. GVC GOVERNANCE AND LOCATIONAL DETERMINANTS 140
1. GVC governance: the orchestration of fragmented and internationally dispersed operations .141
2. Locational determinants of GVC activities . 144
C. DEVELOPMENT IMPLICATIONS OF GVCS . 148
1. Local value capture . 148
a. GVC contribution to GDP and growth 151
b. Domestic value added in trade and business linkages . 152
c. Foreign affiliates and value added retention for the local economy 154
d GVCs and transfer pricing 155
2. Job creation, income generation and employment quality .. 156
a. GVC participation, job creation and income generation .. 156
b. GVCs and the quality of employment . 157
3. Technology dissemination and skills building . 159
a. Technology dissemination and learning under different GVC governance structures .159
b. Learning in GVCs: challenges and pitfalls 161
4. Social and environmental impacts . 161
a. CSR challenges in GVCs 162
b Offshoring emissions: GVCs as a transfer mechanism of environmental impact 164
5. Upgrading and industrial development 164
a. Upgrading dynamically at the firm level 165
b. Upgrading at the country level and GVC development paths 169
D. POLICY IMPLICATIONS OF GVCS 175
1. Embedding GVCs in development strategy .. 177
2. Enabling participation in GVCs . 180
3. Building domestic productive capacity .. 183
4. Providing a strong environmental, social and governance framework . 185
a. Social, environmental and safety and health issues 185
b Transforming EPZs into centres of excellence for sustainable business . 186
c Other concerns and good governance issues in GVCs 189
5. Synergizing trade and investment policies and institutions 190
a. Ensuring coherence between trade and investment policies . 190
b Synergizing trade and investment promotion and facilitation 193
c Regional Industrial Development Compacts .. 195

CONCLUDING REMARKS: GVC POLICY DEVELOPMENT – TOWARDS A SOUND STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK 196

REFERENCES .. 203
ANNEX TABLES 211


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