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Literatur zur Politischen Ökonomie
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Cockshott (2009): Classical Econophysics
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Titel:
Classical Econophysics
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Jahr:
2009
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Kleinbild
Inhalt:
This monograph examines the domain of classical political economy using the methodologies developed in recent years both by the new discipline of econo-physics and by computing science. This approach is used to re-examine the classical subdivisions of political economy: production, exchange, distribution and finance. The book begins by examining the most basic feature of economic life – production – and asks what it is about physical laws that allows production to take place. How is it that human labour is able to modify the world? It looks at the role that information has played in the process of mass production and the extent to which human labour still remains a key resource. The Ricardian labour theory of value is re-examined in the light of econophysics, presenting agent based models in which the Ricardian theory of value appears as an emergent property. The authors present models giving rise to the class distribution of income, and the long term evolution of profit rates in market economies. Money is analysed using tools drawn both from computer science and the recent Chartalist school of financial theory.

PART I
Work, information and value 5
1 Problematizing labour 7
1.1 Watt on work 7
1.2 Marx: the architect and the bee 12
1.3 The demonic challenge 19
1.4 Entropy 20
2 Problematizing information 30
2.1 The Shannon–Weaver concept of information 30
2.2 Entropy reductions in action programs 38
2.3 Alternative views of information 38
3 Labour productivity 47
3.1 Raising production in general 47
3.2 Accelerated production 53
3.3 Parallelizing production 58
4 Babbage and the birth of digital technology 74
4.1 Copy and calculating 74
4.2 Tables 75
4.3 Prony, Babbage and the division of mental labour 77
4.4 Babbage′s machines 81
5 From machines to the universal machine 85
5.1 Processing information 85
5.2 Turing machines 89
5.3 The universal Turing machine 97
5.4 Decidability and the Church–Turing thesis 99
5.5 The TM computability of markets 103
5.6 RUR or Robots R Us 108
6 Political economy: value and labour 113
6.1 Smith and Watt 113
6.2 Labour commanded as a measure of value 117
6.3 Labour time and the determination of value 119
6.4 Ricardo: clarity achieved 121
6.5 Marx′s contribution 125
6.6 Two challenges to the labour theory of value 130
6.7 The probabilistic response 136

PART II
Exchange, money and capital 137
7 The probabilistic approach to economic variables 139
7.1 Probabilistic models 139
8 The statistical mechanics of money 148
8.1 Introduction 148
8.2 Boltzmann–Gibbs distribution 149
8.3 Computer simulations 150
8.4 Thermal machine 152
8.5 Models with debt 153
8.6 Boltzmann equation 155
8.7 Non-Boltzmann–Gibbs distributions 156
8.8 Nonlinear Boltzmann equation vs. linear master equation 158
8.9 Conclusions 159
9 A probabilistic approach to the law of value 161
9.1 The law of value 161
9.2 The model 163
9.3 Simulation results 168
9.4 Analysis 174
9.5 Discussion 180
10 Value in the capitalist economy 184
10.1 Farjoun and Machover′s approach to price 185
10.2 Information content of prices 188
10.3 Prices and the rate of profit 190
10.4 Empirical evidence for labour theory of value 192
11 Money, credit and the form of value 203
11.1 Money and the form of value 203
11.2 Two theories of money 206
11.3 Monetary relations and records 210
11.4 Money space, an illustration 214
11.5 Commodity–money space 220
11.6 The logical properties of financial transactions 226
12 Banking and capital 233
12.1 Bank credit 233
12.2 The necessity of paper money 244
12.3 Banking technology 247
12.4 The interest rate 254
12.5 Dominance of the financial sector 256

PART III
Class distribution of income 261
13 A probabilistic model of the social relations of capitalism 263
13.1 Introduction 263
13.2 A dynamic model of the social relations of production 264
13.3 Results 271
13.4 A note on methodology 287
13.5 Essential and inessential properties of capitalism 290
14 Understanding profit 292
14.1 Sraffa: profit and the technology matrix 293
14.2 Kalecki: profit and monetary flows 298
14.3 Demographics and the long-run rate of profit 300

PART IV
Information and coordination 319
15 Hayek, information and knowledge 321
15.1 Inadequacy of the price form 323
15.2 Information flows under market and plan 332
15.3 The argument from dynamics 337

PART V
Appendices 341
Appendix A The law of value: proofs 343
Appendix B The law of value: experimental details 346
Appendix C A simple planning program 347
Appendix D Profits in the SA model 349
References 353
Index 361


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