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Literatur zur Politischen Ökonomie
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Screpanti (2005): An Outline of the History of Economic Thought
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Titel:
An Outline of the History of Economic Thought
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aus dem Italienischen
Ort: Verl.:
Jahr:
2005
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2. überarb. u. erw. Aufl.
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Inhalt:
PART I FROM THE ORIGINS TO KEYNES
1. The Birth of Political Economy 19
1.1. Opening of the Modern World 19
1.1.1. The end of the Middle Ages and scholasticism 19
1.1.2. Communes, humanism and the Renaissance 22
1.1.3. The expansion of ′Mercantile′ capitalism 27
1.1.4. The Scientific Revolution and the birth of political economy 29
1.2. Mercantilism 32
1.2.1. Bullionism 32
1.2.2. Mercantilist commercial theories and policies 34
1.2.3. Demographic theories and policies 36
1.2.4. Monetary theories and policies 38
1.2.5. Hume′s criticism 40
1.2.6. Theories of value 41
1.3. Some Forerunners of Classical Political Economy 43
1.3.1. The premisses of a theoretical revolution 43
1.3.2. William Petty and ′political arithmetick′ 45
1.3.3. Locke, North, and Mandeville 47
1.3.4. Boisguillebert and Cantillon 49
Relevant Works 51
Bibliography 52
2. The Laissez-Faire Revolution and Smithian Economics 54
2.1. The Laissez-Faire Revolution 54
2.1.1. The preconditions of the Industrial Revolution 54
2.1.2. Quesnay and the physiocrats 55
2.1.3. Galiani and the Italians 58
2.1.4. Hume and Steuart 63
2.2. Adam Smith 65
2.2.1. The ′mechanical clock′ and the ′invisible hand′ 65
2.2.2. Accumulation and the distribution of income 68
2.2.3. Value 69
2.2.4. Market and competition 72
2.2.5. Smith′s three souls 73
2.2.6. Smith as an institutionalist 77
2.3. The Smithian Orthodoxy 82
2.3.1. An era of optimism 82
2.3.2. Bentham and utilitarianism 83
2.3.3. The Smithian economists and Say 85
Relevant Works 87
Bibliography 88
3. From Ricardo to Mill 90
3.1. Ricardo and Malthus 90
3.1.1. Thirty years of crisis 90
3.1.2. The Corn Laws 91
3.1.3. The theory of rent 92
3.1.4. Profits and wages 95
3.1.5. Profits and over-production 96
3.1.6. Discussions on value 97
3.2. The Disintegration of Classical Political Economy in the Age of Ricardo 100
3.2.1. The Ricardians, Ricardianism, and the classical tradition 100
3.2.2. The anti-Ricardian reaction 102
3.2.3. Cournot and Dupuit 104
3.2.4. Gossen and von Thünen 107
3.2.5. The Romantics and the German Historical School 109
3.3. The Theories of Economic Harmony and Mill′s Synthesis 111
3.3.1. The ′Age of Capital′ and the theories of economic harmony 111
3.3.2. John Stuart Mill 113
3.3.3. Wages and the wages fund 115
3.3.4. Capital and the wages fund 118
3.4. English Monetary Theories and Debates in the Age of Classical Economics 121
3.4.1. The Restriction Act 121
3.4.2. The Bank Charter Act 124
3.4.3. Henry Thornton 127
Relevant Works 130
Bibliography 131
4. Socialist Economic Thought and Marx 133
4.1. From Utopia to Socialism 133
4.1.1. The birth of the workers′ movement 133
4.1.2. The two faces of Utopia 134
4.1.3. Saint-Simon and Fourier 135
4.2. Socialist Economic Theories 138
4.2.1. Sismondi, Proudhon, Rodbertus 138
4.2.2. Godwin and Owen 139
4.2.3. The Ricardian socialists and related theorists 140
4.3. Marx′s Economic Theory 142
4.3.1. Marx and the classical economists 142
4.3.2. Exploitation in the production process 146
4.3.3. Exploitation and value 148
4.3.4. The transformation of values into prices 151
4.3.5. Equilibrium, Say′s Law, and crises 154
4.3.6. Wages, the trade cycle, and the ′laws of movement′ of the capitalist economy 155
4.3.7. Monetary aspects of the cycle and the crisis 159
Relevant Works 161
Bibliography 162
5. The Triumph of Utilitarianism and the Marginalist Revolution 163
5.1. The Marginalist Revolution 163
5.1.1. The ′climax′ of the 1870s and 1880s 163
5.1.2. The neoclassical theoretical system 165
5.1.3. Was it a real revolution? 167
5.1.4. The reasons for success 170
5.2. William Stanley Jevons 173
5.2.1. Logical calculus in economics 173
5.2.2. Wages and labour, interest and capital 176
5.2.3. English historical economics 179
5.3. Leon Walras 180
5.3.1. Walras′s vision of the working of the economic system 180
5.3.2. General economic equilibrium 183
5.3.3. Walras and the articulation of economic science 187
5.4. Carl Menger 189
5.4.1. The birth of the Austrian School and the Methodenstreit 189
5.4.2. The centrality of the theory of marginal utility in Menger 192
Relevant Works 193
Bibliography 194
6. The Construction of Neoclassical Orthodoxy 196
6.1. The Belle Epoque 196
6.2. Marshall and the English Neoclassical Economists 198
6.2.1. Alfred Marshall 198
6.2.2. Competition and equilibrium in Marshall 200
6.2.3. Marshall′s social philosophy 202
6.2.4. Pigou and welfare economics 203
6.2.5. Wicksteed and ′the exhaustion of the product′ 205
6.2.6. Edgeworth and bargaining negotiation 207
6.3. Neoclassical Theory in America 209
6.3.1. Clark and the marginal-productivity theory 209
6.3.2. Fisher: inter-temporal choice and the quantity theory of money 212
6.4. Neoclassical Theory in Austria and Sweden 215
6.4.1. The Austrian School and subjectivism 215
6.4.2. The Austrian School joins the mainstream 217
6.4.3. Wicksell and the origins of the Swedish School 218
6.5. Pareto and the Italian Neoclassical Economists 223
6.5.1. From cardinal utility to ordinalism 223
6.5.2. Pareto′s criterion and the new welfare economics 226
6.5.3. Barone, Pantaleoni, and the ′Paretaio′ 227
Relevant Works 229
Bibliography 230
7. The Years of High Theory: I 232
7.1. Problems of Economic Dynamics 232
7.1.1. Economic hard times . . . 232
7.1.2. Money in disequilibrium 234
7.1.3. The Stockholm School 236
7.1.4. Production and expenditure 238
7.1.5. The multiplier and the accelerator 241
7.1.6. The Harrod–Domar model 243
7.2. John Maynard Keynes 245
7.2.1. English debates on economic policy 245
7.2.2. How Keynes became Keynesian 249
7.2.3. The General Theory: effective demand and employment 251
7.2.4. The General Theory: liquidity preference 254
7.3. Michael Kalecki 258
7.3.1. The level of income and its distribution 258
7.3.2. The trade cycle 260
7.4. Joseph Alois Schumpeter 262
7.4.1. Equilibrium and development 262
7.4.2. The trade cycle and money 265
Relevant Works 266
Bibliography 268
8. The Years of High Theory: II 270
8.1. The Theory of Market Forms 270
8.1.1. The first signs of dissent 270
8.1.2. Sraffa′s criticism of the Marshallian theoretical system 271
8.1.3. Chamberlin′s theory of monopolistic competition 273
8.1.4. Joan Robinson′s theory of imperfect competition 275
8.1.5. The decline of the theory of market forms 278
8.2. The Theory of General Economic Equilibrium 280
8.2.1. The first existence theorems and von Neumann′s model 280
8.2.2. The English reception of the Walrasian approach 284
8.2.3. Value and demand in Hicks 286
8.2.4. General economic equilibrium in Hicks 287
8.2.5. The IS-LM model 289
8.3. The New Welfare Economics 291
8.3.1. Robbins′s epistemological setting 291
8.3.2. The Pareto criterion and compensation tests 292
8.4. The Debate on Economic Calculation under Socialism 295
8.4.1. The dance begins 295
8.4.2. The neoclassical socialism of Lange and Lerner 296
8.4.3. Von Hayek′s criticism 298
8.5. Alternative Approaches 299
8.5.1. Allyn Young and increasing returns 299
8.5.2. Thorstein Veblen 301
8.5.3. Institutional thought in the inter-war years 304
8.5.4. From Dmitriev to Leontief 308
8.5.5. The reawakening of Marxist economic theory 313
Relevant Works 316
Bibliography 318
PART II CONTEMPORARY DEVELOPMENTS OF
ECONOMIC THEORY
9. Contemporary Macroeconomic Theories 323
9.1. From the Golden Age to Stagflation 323
9.2. The Neoclassical Synthesis 325
9.2.1. Generalizations: the IS-LM model again 325
9.2.2. Refinements: the consumption function 328
9.2.3. Corrections: money and inflation 330
9.2.4. Simplifications: growth and distribution 333
9.3. The Monetarist Counter-Revolution 335
9.3.1. Act I: money matters 335
9.3.2. Act II: ′you can′t fool all the people all the time′ 337
9.3.3. Act III: the students go beyond the master 340
9.3.4. Was it real glory? 343
9.4. From Disequilibrium to Non-Walrasian Equilibrium 346
9.4.1. Disequilibrium and the microfoundations of
macroeconomics 346
9.4.2. The non-Walrasian equilibrium models 347
9.5. The Post-Keynesian Approach 351
9.5.1. Anti-neoclassical reinterpretations of Keynes 351
9.5.2. Distribution and growth 353
9.5.3. Money and the instability of the capitalist economy 358
9.5.4. Heterodox microfoundations of macroeconomics 360
9.6. The New Keynesian Macroeconomics 363
9.6.1. A distant Hicksian background 363
9.6.2. Nominal rigidities 365
9.6.3. Real rigidities 368
9.6.4. A comparison between some contemporary schools of macroeconomics 371
Relevant Works 374
Bibliography 377
10. Neoclassical Economics from Triumph to Crisis 380
10.1. The Neo-Walrasian Approach to General Economic Equilibrium 380
10.1.1. The conquest of the existence theorem 380
10.1.2. Defeat on the grounds of uniqueness and stability 384
10.1.3. The end of a world? 388
10.1.4. Temporary equilibrium and money in general-equilibrium theory 394
10.2. Developments in the New Welfare Economics and the Economic Theories of Justice 396
10.2.1. The two fundamental theorems of welfare economics 396
10.2.2. The debate about market failures and Coase′s theorem 400
10.2.3. The theory of social choice: Arrow′s impossibility theorem 404
10.2.4. Sen and the critique of utilitarianism 406
10.2.5. Economic theories of justice 409
10.3. The Controversy on Marginalism in the Theory of the Firm and Markets 413
10.3.1. Critiques of the neoclassical theory of the firm 413
10.3.2. Post-Keynesian theories of the firm 415
10.3.3. Managerial and behavioural theories 418
10.3.4. The neoclassical reaction and the new theories of the firm 420
Relevant Works 423
Bibliography 426
11. At the Margins of Orthodoxy 428
11.1. Games, Evolution and Growth 428
11.1.1. Game theory 428
11.1.2. Evolutionary games and institutions 432
11.1.3. The theory of endogenous growth 435
11.2. The Theory of Production as a Circular Process 437
11.2.1. Activity analysis and the non-substitution theorem 437
11.2.2. The debate on the theory of capital 440
11.2.3. Production of commodities by means of commodities 444
11.3. Marxist Economic Thought between Orthodoxy and Revision 446
11.3.1. Marxist thought before 1968 446
11.3.2. Marxist heresies 449
11.3.3. Toward a theory of value with the feet on the ground 451
Relevant Works 453
Bibliography 455
12. A Post-Smithian Revolution? 456
12.1. At the Threshold of the Millennium 456
12.1.1. Globalization 456
12.1.2. Modern and post-modern 461
12.2. Sources of Contemporary Institutionalist and Evolutionary Theory: Four Unconventional Economists 466
12.2.1. Karl Polanyi 466
12.2.2. Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen 469
12.2.3. Albert O. Hirschman 472
12.2.4. Richard M. Goodwin 473
12.3. Approaches to Institutional Analysis 475
12.3.1. The ′new political economy′ and surroundings 475
12.3.2. Contractarian neo-institutionalism 476
12.3.3. Utilitarian neo-institutionalism 479
12.3.4. The new ′old′ institutionalism 484
12.3.5. Evolutionary neo-institutionalism 489
12.3.6. Irreversibilities, increasing returns, and complexity 491
12.3.7. Von Hayek and the neo-Austrian school 495
12.4. Radical Political Economy 500
12.4.1. The monetary circuit and structural change theories 500
12.4.2. Analytical Marxism 503
12.4.3. Post-Marxism 508
12.4.4. The feminist challenge 510
12.5. Beyond Homo oeconomicus 512
Relevant Works 515
Bibliography 519


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