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Literatur zur Politischen Ökonomie
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Levy (1911): Monopoly and Competition
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Titel:
Monopoly and Competition
Untertitel:
A Study in English Industrial Organisation
Ort: Verl.:
Jahr:
1911
Deskribierung:
Inhalt:
PART I. MONOPOLY IN THE DAYS OF EARLY INDUSTRIAL CAPITALISM

CHAPTER I THE HISTORY OF EARLY CAPITALISM
(a) The new trades of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries (alum salt glass soap wire) 3
(b] Mining (tin in Cornwall coal in the north) ... 7
(c) Former handicrafts (transition to capitalism position of the small employer organisation of the felt-making and cloth trades) 12
CHAPTER II THE ORGANISATION OF MONOPOLIES
(a) Legal basis (general creation of monopolies under Queen Elizabeth the anti-monopoly statute of 1624 and its effects abuse of the patent clause mining rights the Crown's prerogative and its abolition) .... 17
(b) The economic organisation of the monopoly (the Newcastle coal gild the tin monopoly and the tin buyers' monopolies in the Forest of Dean salt, alum and glass monopolies the struggles for the soap monopoly capitalistic monopolies and trade corporations the pin monopoly and the wire industry the beaver hat trade conclusion) 24
CHAPTER III EFFECTS OF MONOPOLIESTHEIR FALL
(a) Effects (general conclusions rise in price and depreciation in quality influence on the development of new trades awakening of the spirit of enterprise intensification of capitalism monopolist "entrepreneurs ") . . . . 44
(b) The agitation against monopoly (general importance the share taken by Parliament anti-monopoly literature Ralph Gardiner the anti-monopolist conscience and hatred of patentees the fall of monopoly prospects in the eighteenth century) 61
CHAPTER IV COMPARISON WITH GERMAN DEVELOPMENT
Preliminary remarks monopolist organisation of the German mining industry coal mining and official administration the production of iron-ore and smelting influence of landowners copper mining Siegerland privileged factories of a monopolistic character monopolies in the capitalist organisation of domestic industries Solingen, Altena, Calw the course of monopolistic development in Germany and England ......... 73

PART II. FREE TRADE AND THE EARLIEST MONOPOLIST COMBINATIONS

CHAPTER V THE DOCTRINE OF FREE COMPETITION
Views of Adam Smith and Malthus opinions of Buchanan and MacCulloch on the individualism of manufacturers Mill's reservations the actual development of the competitive struggle up till 1850
CHAPTER VI MONOPOLIST COMBINATIONS IN ENGLISH MINING
(a) English coal cartels in their prime (the beginnings of the "limitations of vend" the conditions necessary the history of the cartel from 1771 to 1833 its organisation in 1833, its regulation and distribution of production, its "normal" price, its control over the middlemen effects aim protection of the weakest argument position of the consumers and the law courts
(b) Monopolist combination in copper mining at the end of the eighteenth century (history of copper mining Cornwall and Anglesea the syndicate defence organisation in Birmingham organisation after 1792 an "export syndicate")
(c) The break-up of the coal cartel (rise of railways competition of other sources of supply increasing number of mines slump in prices the year 1844 hopelessness of attempts to renew the cartel) 156

PART III. THE MODERN ORGANISATION OF ENGLISH INDUSTRY ON A MONOPOLIST BASIS

CHAPTER VII INTRODUCTORY TRANSITION TO THE PRESENT TIME
1880-1900 English opinion of the development of cartels and trusts abroad late commencement of such development in England its significance over-estimate of free trade the doctrines of individualism among manufacturers . 170
CHAPTER VIII THE SPHERE OF COMPETITION
England as the producer of mineral ores peculiar position of coal mining unsuccessful attempts at monopolies fusions in South Wales English iron-ore mining compared with Germany and America impossibility of monopoly the "finishing" industries absence of protective duties insignificance of freights iron prices and the pointlessness of pig-iron cartels the paper trade the Bedsteadmakers' Association large number of firms engaged in the textile trades competition in finished and high-grade goods comparative neglect of " vertical " combination Welsh tin-plating an instructive example . . . .179
CHAPTER IX EXISTING MONOPOLIST ORGANISATIONS IN ENGLISH INDUSTRY
(a} The movement towards concentration (the general meaning ' of the concentration into larger units development in the paper trade, in pig-iron and in tin plates horizontal combination, its advantages as shown by Lord Furness's scheme vertical combination, its peculiarities in Englandgeneral relations of the tendency to concentration and the rise of monopolies) 208
(b] The chief existing English cartels and trusts . . . 221
1. The Portland cement trust (High freights possibilities of import "Portland cement" and "natural cement" prospects of the monopoly price) ........... 222
2. The steel associations (Half-manufactured imports and '"dumping" the position in ship plates and boiler plates geographical distribution of markets dumping of English cartels home policy in prices effects of other associations) . . . 226
3. The industrial spirit cartel (Scarcity of makers division of output and geographical distribution of markets compensation to "simple" works complaints against monopolist prices) . . . 233
4. The wall-paper trust (English paper-making and foreign competition restricted effect of the trust) 236
5. The cable cartel (Comparative backwardness of the English electrical industry slight concentration the cable industry an exception the Association its understanding with organised buyers high prices and non-standardised goods) 237
6. The salt trust and syndicate (Importance of English salt mining beginnings of a trust high prices and great competition the syndicate allocation of production and its organisation autonomous prices dumping in America) . . . . . 242
7. The fine cotton spinners and doublers' trust (General relation of international competition to the English textile industry misleading accounts of the Tariff Reform Commission transition to high-grade manufacture monopolist position of the fine cotton spinners and doublers) 246
8. The sewing cotton trust and syndicate (J. & P. Coats & Co. association with the English Sewing Cotton Co.)
9. The bleaching and dyeing trusts (Reasons for monopoly in bleaching and dyeing increase of prices and conflicts with merchants an intermediary cotton and wool dyers' trust less powerful than the Bradford Dyers' Association) . . . .252
10. The calico printers' trust (An example of the movement to concentration difficulty of estimating its effect on prices) .... 255
11. The locomotive trust (English engine making exempt from foreign competition amalgamation into one undertaking or trust) . . 258
12. The whisky trust (The Distillers' Company the result of a long process of amalgamation) 259
13. The British and international rails syndicate (General tendency to concentrate in rail making the organisation of an international combine comparison of prices in 1900 and 1907 dependence of English cartel prices on the international regulation of markets) . . 260
14. The soda trust (Origin experiences of competition Brunner, Mond & Co. international agreements) .*.... 263
15. The tobacco trust (Origin territorial division of markets present-day organisation of American, English and Anglo-American companies imports and exports monopolist position of the trust in America influence of machinery on concentration importance of advertisement improved conditions of buying tobacco planters' organisation influence on prices) 264
CHAPTER X QUESTIONS OF ORGANISATION
The various forms of monopolistic organisation the alternative : " cartel or trust ?" peculiarities of development in England decentralised trusts their disadvantages changes in form necessity of a policy of concentration examples the reorganisation of the Calico Trust in 1902 further alterations in 1908 advantages of a "trust organiser" over-capitalisation examples resemblance to monopolies financial results danger of buying up inefficient works
CHAPTER XI THEORETICAL CONCLUSIONS CRITICISM
Summary of results difference in the nature of the immunity from foreign competition enjoyed in England and that of Germany or the United States effects of these differences on the creation of monopolies comparative limitation of monopolist regulation of prices when there are no protective duties and no high transit charges and in the production of high-grade manufacture relations between the number of existing competitors and the extent of the profit a monopoly may expect various instances of cartels and trusts where there were many competitors but prospects of large profits necessity of a small number of undertakings and a movement towards concentration for the appearance of monopolist associations in England influence of concentration on the rise of further competition non-elasticity of manufacturers' materials in other countries the size of the undertaking the main element in English monopolies a theoretical example other subsidiary factors the influence of concentration more clearly shown in England than elsewhere free traders and protectionists present manifestations of monopoly in prices fixing of prices raising above competition price differentiation in prices explanations, promises and avowals theoretical side of the development analogy with the seventeenth century position of the people and the political parties as regards the present development of cartels and trusts ..... 284

APPENDICES
I. A Cartel Agreement of 1835
II. Lord Furness's Speech
III. Organisation of Monopoly The Industrial Spirit Cartel


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