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Literatur zur Politischen Ökonomie
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Schnaiberg (1980):
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Verf./Hrsg./KS:
Titel:
The environment
Untertitel:
From surplus to scarcity
Ort: Verl.:
Jahr:
1980
Anmerkung:
Vermutlich einer der ersten Versuche, Fragen der Ökologie von seiten der marxistischen Politischen Ökonomie ernsthaft aufzugreifen.
Deskribierung:
Inhalt:
I THE SOCIAL MEANING OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS 9
A social structural view of the environment 9
What is the environment! 9
The societal meani ngs of the environment: Home versus sustenance 10
The structure of production: Environmental versus societal perspectives 13
Environmental production: Ecosystems 13
Societal production: Economies 15
Ecosystems versus economies: Complements and contradictions 18
Energy: Resource, mediator, and indicator 21
Environmental problems of societal production 23
Economic production impacts: Withdrawals and additions 2 3
Dimensions of biospheric disorganization 26
Human threats from environmental problems 2 8
Direct biological threats 2 9
Sociocultural production threats 3 5
Perspectives from natural and social history 38
Ecological risks and uncertainties: Social responses 41
The organization of the argument 43
Institutions, inequality , and environmental change 43

2 THE SEARCH FOR CAUSES AND SOLUTIONS

II POPULATION: PARADOXES OF THE HYDRA MONSTER 61
The logic of population ism 6 1
Populationism : Essential propositions 6 1
A parable 64
Reflections on the parable 64
The population problems model : Loopholes, uncertainties, and inferential leaps 6 9
Types of population problems 7 1
World population growth 7 1
Regional population growth 7 2
National population growth 7 3
The problem of density 74
Problems of growth versus problems of size 7 6
The logical problems o f the population ist perspective: Summary and illustration 7 7
Popul..tion control: Soc ial versus biological models 8 1
The need for social models 8 1
Why have populati ons grown? The soc ial perspective 8 3
Why have populati ons grown? The biological perspective 8 6
Malthusianism: Origin and degradation 8 8
Inequality and population: An overview 9 1
Lessons and models for population policies 9 3
Lessons: China and India 9 3
Models: China , India, and Beyond 9 5

III THE ROLE OF TECHNOLOGY: DEUS EX MACHINA OR SOCIAL CREATION? 1 1 3
Technological factors i n environmental degradation 1 1 3
Introduction 1 1 3
Technology, energy, and matter 1 1 7
The social bases of technological change 1 2 1
Compting models: Society, science , governments, and firms 1 2 1
The role of private capital in technological change 1 2 5
The role of tlie state in technological change 1 2 9
Social responses to technological change 1 3 1
From invisibility to visibility 1 3 1
Visibility and conflicts over technological control 1 3 4
Technological assessment and change , and the politics of externalities I 3 7

IV THE EXPANSION OF CONSUMPTION : DOES THE TAIL WAG THE DOG? 1 5 7
Forms of production and consu mption expa nsion I 5 7
Understanding consumption : Its determ inants and consequences I 5 7
Pure consumer sovereignty I 5 9
Distorted consumption I 5 9
Structured consumption I 6 0
The myth of "postindustrialism": Consumption and production realities 1 6 I
Advanced i ndustrialism versus postindustrialism: Population and consumption growth I 6 5
Ecological impacts of the service sector I 6 9
Ecological impacts of the nonservice sectors I 7 I
Consumer demand and production expansion I 73
Consumer models and consumer sovereignty I 73
Some limitations on consumer markets : Nonprivate consumption I 7 5
Constraints on consumer preference formation I 7 6
Direct manipulation of consumer preferences 1 7 7
Contingent preference constraints I 7 9
Public goods determination I 8 I
Constraints on consumer actions 183
The effects of income 1 84
The misfitting of demand and products I 8 6
The problem of retrospective demand I 8 9
Can consumers control production ? 1 90
The consumer versus the market : The aggregation problem ' 1 9 0

V THE EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION: CAPITAL, LABOR, AND STATE ROLES 2 0 5
Toward an understanding of economic growth coalitions 2 0 5
Economic expansion : Surplus generation and distribution 2 0 5
Capital , labor, and the state : Relationships to production expansion 2 0 9
The unpolitics o f expansionism: Ideological bases 2 I 5
The treadmill of production : Origins, mechanisms, and options 2 2 0
The two sectors o f production : Controls over expansion 2 2 0
Monopoly capitalism , pro fits, and employment: The treadmill o f production 2 2 7
Labor force growth 2 3 1
Technological choices 2 3 2
Capital intensification 2 3 3
The i nfluence of labor: By bread alone? 2 3 4
The role o f the state : Giving and taking 24 1
Tlte fiscal role 242
The credit role 243
The legislative role 244
Theory and practice of the state 246
Reversing the treadmill: Prerequ isites for change 247
Consciousness, coordination , and conflict 247

3 SOCIAL RESPONSES TO ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE

VI ENVIRONMENTAL INTELLIGENCE: CONSTRAINTS ON SCIENTISTS AND TECHNOLOGISTS 277
Obstacles to environmental research by scientists 2 7 7
The roles o f science a n d technology 2 7 7
The division of scienti fic labor and power 2 79
The control of scienti fic " missio.ns" 2 8 1
The controls o f publication/communication access 2 84
Direct social and economic coercion of scientists 2 8 9
0 bstacles to environmental research by technologists 2 9 1
D i fferences between technologists and scientists 2 9 1
Control over access to data 2 9 3
The control o f consu ltantships 2 9 7
The ideology o f " fel,lsibility" 2 9 9
The nontransferability of specialized engi neering skills 3 0 1
From production to impact research? 3 0 3
Future balances and imbalances 3 0 3

VII SOCIAL WELFARE INTELL IGENCE : SOCIAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT BIASES 3 1 6
The utilitarian model of policy evaluation 3 1 6
Formal and informal impact assessment 3 1 6
Benefit-cost analysis: Science or politics? 3 2 0
Quantifi cation and distributi on : biases and remedies 3 2 7
Projective versus retrospective accounting 3 2 7
Listing of qualitative impacts 3 3 1
Quanti fication o f impacts 3 3 2
Distribution o f costs and benefits 3 3 4
Social rates of return 3 3 9
Discounting the future 3 42
New contexts for impact assessment 344
Soc ial impact assessment: Some political futures 3 44

VIII THE ENVIRONMENTAL MOVEMENT: ROOTS AND TRANSFORMATIONS 3 62
The contemporary movement 3 62
The movement in analytic perspective 3 62
The trajectory of the contemporary movement 3 66
Composition o f the movement: A dynamic view 3 74
Conservationism , envir"on mentalism , and appropriate technology 3 78
From conse rvationism to environ mentalism: Evolution or revolution? 3 7 8
Environmentalism and conservationism : Analytic comparisons 3 8 3
The future of environmentalism 3 8 9
Ideological roots of appropriate technology: A key asset? 3 8 9

IX W(H)ITHER THE ENVIRONMENT? SUMMARY AND SUGGESTIONS 4 1 2
Social structures and soc ial options 4 1 2
Summary o f the analysis 4 1 2
The environment as a social problem 4 1 2
The search for causes and solutions 4 1 4
Social responses to environmental change 4 1 8
Surplus and social choice 422
Toward socioenvironmental wel fare reforms 428
Production reorganization and social syntheses 42 8
State intervention : Taking and giving of surplus 43 0
From reformism to socialist restructuring: Utopias, dystopias, and uncertainties 4 3 4


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