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Literatur zur Politischen Ökonomie
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UNCTAD (2007): The Least Developed Countries Report 2007
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Titel:
The Least Developed Countries Report 2007
Ort: Verl.:
Jahr:
2007
Anmerkung:
Es geht u.a. um die Frage, wieweit der Aufbau von Wertketten, also die internationale Verzahnung der Produktion, den am "wenigsten entwickelten" Ländern bei der nachholenden Entwicklung hilft. Die Aussichten darauf sind jedoch alles in allem eher düster.
Deskribierung:
Inhalt:
INTRODUCTION: WHY TECHNOLOGICAL LEARNING AND INNOVATION MATTER FOR LDCS .1
A. Introduction. 1
B. Technological development in LDCs in a comparative international perspective . 1
C. The importance of innovation and technological learning for LDCs. 4
D. Technological progress and poverty reduction. 8
E. Organization of the Report 9
Notes 9
References. 9

1. BUILDING TECHNOLOGICAL CAPABILITIES THROUGH INTERNATIONAL MARKET LINKAGES .11
A. Introduction . 11
B. Imports of capital goods. 12
1. Trends and origin. 13
2. Intensity of capital goods imports. 14
3. Types of capital goods imported. 17
4. Implications. 19
C. Exports and the role of global value chains 20
1. The changing nature of global value chains . 21
2. Participation of LDCs in global value chains . 23
3. Upgrading and downgrading in LDC exports . 26
4. Implications. 27
D. Foreign direct investment 30
1. FDI and technology diffusion. 30
2. Trends and sectoral composition of FDI . 31
3. FDI in mineral extractive industries 33
4. FDI in garment manufacturing . 36
5. Implications. 41
E. Licensing 42
F. Conclusions 43
Notes 45
References. 46
Annex: The data set on imports of capital goods by developing countries 49

2. NATIONAL POLICIES TO PROMOTE TECHNOLOGICAL LEARNING AND INNOVATION51
A. Introduction. 51
B. How science and technology issues are treated in PRSPs: Recent country experience in comparative perspective . 51
1. Recent country experience . 51
2. A comparative perspective. 54
C. The nature and scope of STI policies 56
1. Linear versus systems models of innovation 57
2. Explicit and implicit instruments of STI policy 60
3. Old industrial policy versus new innovation policy. 61
D. Applying the catch-up concept in an LDC context: Typical learning and innovation trajectories . 63
E. Applying the catch-up concept in an LDC context: Some strategic priorities . 69
1. Promoting agricultural productivity growth in basic staples. 70
2. Formation and growth of domestic business firms 72
3. Increasing the absorptive capability of the domestic knowledge system 73
(a) Human capital and skills . 73
(b) Financial incentives for learning and innovative investment . 74
(c) Increasing linkages in the domestic knowledge system . 74
4. Leveraging more learning from international trade and FDI . 76
5. Promoting diversification through dynamic inter-sectoral linkage effects. 79
(a) Agricultural growth linkages . 79
(b) Natural resource-based production clusters . 79
6. Upgrading exports . 80
F. The question of state capacity 82
1. The importance of policy learning 82
2. Government–business relations 83
3. The administrative organization of STI policy . 84
4. The importance of national policy space 84
G. Conclusions. 85
Notes 86
References. 87

3. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS AND OTHER INCENTIVE MECHANISMS FOR LEARNING AND INNOVATION.91
A. Introduction. 91
B. Trends in intellectual property protection 91
1. Intellectual property protection and the governance of knowledge 91
2. Some trends in IP protection, worldwide and in LDCs . 93
3. LDCs in the TRIPS-based policy regime 95
(a) Free trade agreements and TRIPS-plus obligations 99
(b) Regional cooperation and regional intellectual property systems in the LDCs 100
4. Calls for reform 100
C. Economics of IPRs and its applicability to LDCs. 101
1. IPRs and the knowledge trade-off 101
2. IPRs, learning and imitation 103
3. Patent excess in the knowledge economy . 105
D. Evidence of the impact of IPRs on learning 106
1. General evidence 106
2. Firm-level evidence . 109
3. Evidence from an LDC: The case of Bangladesh 109
(a) Innovation incentives and the role of intellectual property rights 111
(b) Sector-specific results 112
(c) Summary of key findings. 116
E. IPR regimes and LDCs: Policy implications . 117
1. One size does not fit all and the need for flexibility in IPR systems . 121
2. What kind of technical assistance is needed? . 121
F. Alternative knowledge governance models . 121
1. Learning to use flexibilities: The role of national and regional IP offices 123
2. Utility models 124
G. Conclusions and recommendations for improving knowledge governance . 125
1. Recommendations as per TRIPS flexibilities . 128
2. Recommendations aimed at improving learning capacities. 129
Notes 131
References. 133

4. ADDRESSING THE INTERNATIONAL EMIGRATION OF SKILLED PERSONS .139
A. Introduction . 139
B. Causes and consequences of emigration 140
1. Main causes 140
2. Impacts of emigration on development 141
3. Implications for the LDCs 144
C. Skilled emigration trends and developments . 144
D. Regional patterns 148
1. Africa 148
2. Asia . 151
3. Islands . 151
E. Conclusions and policy recommendations . 152
1. Implications. 152
2. Recipient country policies 152
3. LDC policies 154
4. International programmes 156
Notes 158
References. 159

5. KNOWLEDGE AID 161
A. Introduction . 161
B. Knowledge aid and aid for STI 162
1. Forms of knowledge aid. 162
2. Aid for STI: Evidence from recent surveys 164
C. Aid for STI in LDCs: Elements of the current situation . 166
1. The scale and composition of aid for STI-related human resources and research . 166
2. STI projects and programmes 170
3. The orientations of technical cooperation 173
D. How donors can improve aid for STI in LDCs: Agriculture 174
E. How donors can improve aid for STI in LDCs: Industry and infrastructure . 177
1. Value-chain development schemes 178
2. FDI complementation and linkage development 178
3. Industrial and physical infrastructure project funding 179
4. Engineering associations and NGOs. 180
5. Facilitating South–South collaboration 180
F. Technological learning and aid for trade 181
1. Technological capability-building:The overlooked component of Aid for Trade 181
2. The Integrated Framework (IF) for Trade-Related Technical Assistance 182
3. Deepening preferential market access through a technology fund 184
G. Conclusions. 185
Notes . 186
References. 187
Annex: OECD CRS Codes used to define STI-related aid. 189


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