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Chandler (1999): The Visible Hand
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The Visible Hand
Managerial Revolution in American Business
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15. Auflage
INTRODUCTION: The Visible Hand I
Modern Business Enterprise Defined 1
Some General Propositions 6

PART I The Traditional Processes of Production and Distribution 13
The Traditional Enterprise in Commerce I 5
Institutional Specialization and Market Coordination 15
The General Merchant of the Colonial World 17
Specialization in Commerce 19
Specialization in Finance and Transportation 28
Managing the Specialized Enterprise in Commerce 36
Managing the Specialized Enterprise in Finance and Transportation 40
Technological Limits to Institutional Change in Commerce 48
The Traditional Enterprise in Production 50
Technological Limits to Institutional Change in Production 50
The Expansion of Prefactory Production, 1790-1840 51
Managing Traditional Production 62
The Plantation-an Ancient Form of Large-Scale Production 64
The Integrated Textile Mill-a New Form of Large-Scale Production 67
The Springfield Armory-Another Prototype of the Modern Factory 72
Lifting Technological Constraints 75

PART II The Revolution in Transportation and Communication 79
The Railroads: The First Modern Business Enterprises, 1850s-1860s 81
Innovation in Technology and Organization 81
The Impact of the Railroads on Construction and Finance 89
Structural Innovation 94
Accounting and Statistical Innovation 109
Organizational Innovation Evaluated 120
Railroad Cooperation and Competition, 1870s-1880s 122
New Patterns of Interfirm Relationships 122
Cooperation to Expand Through Traffic 124
Cooperation to Control Competition 133
The Great Cartels 137
The Managerial Role 143
System-Building, 1880s-19005 145
Top Management Decision Making' 145
Building the First Systems 148
System-Building in the 1880s 159
Reorganization and Rationalization in the 1890S 171
Structures for the New Systems 175
The Bureaucratization of Railroad Administration 185
Completing the Infrastructure 188
Other Transportation and Communication Enterprises 188
Transportation: Steamship Lines and Urban Traction Systems 189
Communication: The Postal Service, Telegraph, and Telephone 195
The Organizational Response 203

PART III The Revolution in Distribution and Production 207
Mass Distribution 209
The Basic Transformation 209
The Modern Commodity Dealer 209
The Wholesale Jobber 215
The Mass Retailer 224
The Department Store 225
The Mail-Order House 230
The Chain Store 233
The Economies of Speed 235
Mass Production 240
The Basic Transformation 240
Expansion of the Factory System 244
The Mechanical Industries 249
The Refining and Distilling Industries 253
The Metal-Making Industries 258
The Metal-Working Industries 269
The Beginnings of Scientific Management 272
The Economies of Speed 281

PART IV The Integration of Mass Production with Mass Distribution 285
The Coming of the Modern Industrial Corporation 287
Reasons for Integration .287
Integration by Users of Continuous-Process Technology 289
Integration by Processors of Perishable Products 299
Intergration by Machinery Makers Requiring Specialized Marketing Services 302
The Followers 312
Integration by the Way of Merger 315
Combination and Consolidation 315
The Mergers of the 1880s 320
Mergers, 1890-1903 331
The Success and Failure of Mergers 337
Integration Completed 345
An Overview: 1900-1917 345
Growth by Vertical Integration-a Description 348
Food and Tobacco 348
Oil and Rubber 350
Chemicals, Paper, and Glass 353
The Metal Fabricators 356
The Machinery Makers 357
Primary Metals 359
Growth by Vertical Integration--an Analysis 363
The Importance of the Market 364
Integration and Concentration 365
The Rise of Multinational Enterprise 368
Integration and the Structure of the American Economy 370
Determinants of Size and Concentration 372

PART V The Management and Growth of Modern Industrial Enterprise 377
Middle Management: Function and Structure 381
The Entrepreneurial Enterprise 381
American Tobacco: Managing Mass Production and Distribution of Packaged Products 382
Armour: Managing the Production and Distribution of Perishable Products 391-
Singer and McCormick: Making and Marketing Machinery 402
The Beginnings of Middle Management in American Industry 411
Top Management: Function and Structure 415
The Managerial Enterprise 415
Standard Oil Trust 418
General Electric Company 426
United States Rubber Company 433
E.I.Du Pont de Nemours Powder Company 438
The Growing Supremacy of Managerial Enterprise 450
The Maturing of Modern Business Enterprise 455
Perfecting the Structure 456
The Professionalization of Management 464
Growth of Modern Business Enterprise Between the Wars 469
Modern Business Enterprise Since 1941 476
The Dominance of Modern Business Enterprise 482

CONCLUSION: The Managerial Revolution in American Business 484
General Patterns of Institutional Growth 484
The Ascendancy of the Manager 490
The United States: Seed-Bed of Managerial Capitalism 498

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