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Literatur zur Politischen Ökonomie
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Bernal (1946): The Social Function of Science
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Titel:
The Social Function of Science
erstmals:
1939
Ort: Verl.:
Jahr:
1946
s. Dokument:
 
 
 
Infos zum Text:
Deskribierung:
Inhalt:
PART I: WHAT SCIENCE DOES

CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTORY
THE CHALLENGE TO SCIENCE: The impact of events; should science be suppressed?; the revolt from reason I
THE INTERACTION OF SCIENCE AND SOCIETY: Science as pure thought; science as power; disillusion; escape; the social importance of science; the scientist as worker; science for profit; the institution of science; can science survive

CHAPTER II. HISTORICAL
SCIENCE, LEARNING AND CRAFT: Primitive science; agriculture and civilization; the town and the craftsman; the fatal separation of priest and craftsman; astronomy; medicine; the Greeks and science; science under the philosophers; Hellenistic Revival; Islam; the Middle Ages
THE BIRTH OF MODERN SCIENCE-SCIENCE AND TRADE: The combination of ingenuity and learning; technical advance; science built on craft knowledge; Italy and the first scientific societies; Holland, England, and the Royal Society; the discoveries and navigation; the first scientists; the Newtonian era
SCIENCE AND MANUFACTURE: The steam-engine; science and revolution- the Lunar Society; the great age of French science; the pneumatic revolution and chemical industry; the nineteenth century-science becomes a necessity; Germany enters the field; science as an institution-the idea of pure science
SCIENCE AND IMPERIAL EXPANSION: The War; collaboration of scientists; state science; the post-war period:and the crisis. 29
SCIENCE AND SOCIALISM 32

CHAPTER III. THE EXISTING ORGANIZATION
OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH IN BRITAIN University, Government and Industrial Research
RESEARCH IN THE UNIVERSITIES: Research workers; nature of research done; research in engineering; research in physics and chemistry; research in medical subjects; an unbalanced programme of research

SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES: The Royal Society; the British Association 41
GOVERNMENTAL SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: The Department of Scientific and Industrial Research-the National Physical Laboratory; fuel research; food investigation; forest products and building; research associations; research grants 42
MEDICAL RESEARCH: The Medical Research Council; private medical research 48
AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH 50
SCIENCE IN INDUSTRY: expenditure; character of work. 55
THE FINANCE OF RESEARCH: Endowment; government grants; administration; Treasury control; the character of research finance; the character of research expenditure 57
THE BUDGET OF SCIENCE 62

CHAPTER IV. SCIENCE IN EDUCATION
SCIENCE TEACHING IN THE PAST 71
SCIENCE IN SCHOOLS 73
SCIENCE IN THE UNIVERSITIES: The lecture system; specialization; the curriculum; examinations; medical education; engineering
THE TRAINING OF THE RESEARCH WORKER: Financial difficultics; opportunities for research; the problem of getting on; the profession of research
POPULAR SCIENCE: The current influence of science; the isolation of science; scientific superstition; the pre-scientific attitude; the need for science and its suppression
CHAPTER V. THE EFFICIENCY OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH Three aims for science-psychological, rational, and social
THE IDEAL OF PURE SCIENCE: Science as escape; science and cynicism
THE TECHNICAL INEFFICIENCY OF SCIENCE: Bad organization; laboratory waste of skill; false economies; salaries of scientific workers
SCIENTIFIC INSTITUTES: University laboratories; effects of endowments; government laboratories.
RESEARCH IN INDUSTRY: Secrecy; lack of freedom; low standard
SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS: Mass production; high prices
LACK OF CO-ORDINATION OF RESEARCH: Informal methods' lack of integration of different sciences; the Gerontocracy; need science be organized?

SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS: The burying of published work; the cost of publication; personal communication and travel. 117
THE EFFECTS OF INEFFICIENT ORGANIZATION: Science in danger

CHAPTER VI. THE APPLICATION OF SCIENCE
The interaction of science and technics; the infiltration of science into industry; the time lag in the application of science
THE PROFITABILITY OF SCIENCE: Difficulties in financing research; the conditions for practical success; the problem of scale; waste and frustration of invention; constructive and remedial applications
INDUSTRIAL COMPETITION AND RESEARCH
MONOPOLY AND RESEARCH: Lack of incentive; obsolescence
THE STIFLING OF RESEARCH: Patents
CO-OPERATIVE INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH: Inter-industrial competition
ECONOMIC NATIONALISM AND RESEARCH: Secrecy; international monopolies
THE DISTORTION OF INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH
SCIENCE AND HUMAN WELFARE: Technological unemployment; the impossibility of plenty

CHAPTER VII. SCIENCE AND WAR
SCIENCE AND WAR IN HISTORY: Gunpowder; artillery and the Renaissance; war and the Industrial Revolution; the nineteenth century; science in the Great War; war creates state-organized science
WAR RESEARCH TO-DAY: What is war research?; the mechanization of war
SCIENCE AND ARMAMENTS: Heavy industry; aeroplane production; the chemical industry; explosives and poison gas
NATIONAL FOOD SUPPLIES
THE 'DIVERSION OF RESEARCH TO WAR USES: Military research; the scientist in war; totalitarian war preparation; air raid defence; the protection of the civil population
THE SCIENTIST FACES THE PROBLEM OF WAR: Scientists organize for Peace

CHAPTER VIII. INTERNATIONAL SCIENCE
SCIENCE AND CULTURE IN THE PAST: International science to-day
THE PROBLEM OF LANGUAGE
THE SCIENTIFIC WORLD AND ITS DIVISIONS: National characteristics in science •
SCIENCE IN THE OLDER INDUSTRIAL COUNTRIES: English science; science in pre-Nazi Germany; science in France; science in Holland, Belgium, Switzerland, and Scandinavla; science In Austria and Czecho-Slovakia; science in Poland, Hungary, and the Balkans; science in Spain and Latin America
SCIENCE IN THE UNITED STATES
SCIENCE IN THE EAST: Science in India; science in Japan; science in China; science in Islamic countries
SCIENCE AND FASCISM: Science in Fascist Italy; Nazi science; the persecution of the Jews; the dragooning of science; all science for war; the distortion of science; science in danger
SCIENCE AND SOCIALISM: Science in the Soviet Union; science before the Revolution; early struggles; the scale of Soviet science; planning science; organization; how the system works; science in education and popular culture; character of Soviet science; dialectical materialism and science

PART II: WHAT SCIENCE COULD DO

CHAPTER IX. THE TRAINING OF THE SCIENTIST
THE REORGANIZATION OF SCIENCE: The need for expansion; organization and the preservation of freedom; the recruitment of scientists; vocational selection; a wide entry into scientific research; a directing authority for entrants
CHANGING THE TEACHING OF SCIENCE
SCIENCE IN SCHOOLS: A living curriculum; science for all
SCIENCE IN UNIVERSITIES: Research as a teaching method; sCience and culture; vocational teaching!; specialization; higher universities; research and teaching
REVISING THE CURRICULUM: Physics; chemistry; astronomy and geology; biology; medicine; the social sciences

CRAPTER X. THE REORGANIZATION OF RESEARCH
FIRST PRINCIPLES: Science as an occupation
SPECIALIZATION: The control of specialization
LABORATORY ORGANIZATION: The laboratory as basic unit; cooperative enterprise; the laboratory as a training centre; laboratory democracy; the director; the administrator; the representative; the raising of money; librarian; curator; mechanic and storekeeper; laboratory council; research programmes; dangers of organization; provision for growth; initiative in research; organization and freedom

THE GENERAL ORGANIZATION OF SCIENCE: Horizontal and vertical divisions in research; the place of the universities; the complexity of science; schemes of interconnection.
ACADEMIES: Functions; guarantees of capacity;, mode of election
TECHNICo-SCIENTIFIC INSTITUTES: Two-way communication between science and industry; the institutes and new production; personnel; physical and chemical sectors; biological sector; sociological institutes and planning
INDUSTRIAL LABORATORIES AND FIELD STATIONS: Experimental factories; field stations; the character of applied research; the control of obsolescence
THE ,ApPLlCATION OF SCIENCE UNDER CAPITALISM: Socialism and the condition of the advance of science

CHAPTER XI. SCIENTIFIC COMMUNICATION
THE FUNCTION OF SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS: Categories of publication units; the problem of distribution; distribution service to su persede periodicals; photostat reproduction; how the system would work; abstracts; reports; control of abuses; immediate possibilities
THE INTERNATIONAL PROBLEM: Decentralization; a secondary scientific language?
THE IMPORTANCE OF PERSONAL CONTACTS: Facilitation of travel
POPULAR SCIENCE: Science and the Press; science through radio and cinema; books on science; 'world encyclopaedia; popular participation in science
CHAPTER XII. THE FINANCE OF SCIENCE
SCIENCE AND ECONOMIC SYSTEMS: Financial needs of scienceelasticity and security
SCIENCE IN A PLANNED ECONOMY: Determination of the budget; internal distribution; the financing of laboratories; building up science; the utilization of ability; the status of the scientific worker; no external limitation of funds; optimum expenditure
FINANCING SCIENCE IN A CAPITALIST ECONOMY: Need for greater understanding between science and industry; the endowment of science; official objections; private benevolence; could science pay its way?; economic nationalism and planned science
THE FREEDOM OF SCIENCE: Frustration; science needs organization; scientists and the people

CHAPTER XIII. THE STRATEGY OF. SCIENTIFIC ADVANCE
CAN SCIENCE BE PLANNED?: Flexibility; advance along the line; sticking points; widening the front; consolidating advances; the importance of theory; permanent revision; balance of fundamental and applied research
THE FIRST STAGE: A SURVEY OF SCIENCE: The world of nature and the world of man; need for effective social science
THE PROSPECTS OF SCIENCE: Tasks left undone
PHYSICS: The structure of matter; geophysics
CHEMISTRY: Metals; reactions; the reconstruction of chemistry; colloids and proteins
BZOLOGY: Biochemistry; biophysics; embryology; the nucleus and genetics; ecology; animal behaviour; animal societies
SOCIAL SCIENCE AND PSYCHOLOGY
THE FUTURE OF SCIENCE: Interactions

CHAPTER XIV. SCIENCE IN THE SERVICE OF MAN
HUMAN NEEDS: Primary needs-physiological and social
FooD: New agriculture; bacterial and chemical food production; distribution; cookery
CLOTHING: Supersession of textiles
HOUSING: New materials; internal climate; domestic convenience; the city of the future; town and country; planning.
HEALTH: Control of disease; diseases of old age and death; population control; a great increase under good social conditions
WORK: The worker, not profit, as a prime consideration; machinery to remove, not create, drudgery; work as pleasure
PLAY: Remaking the world
PRODUCTION: Integration of industries in a rational society
MINING: Supersession of underground work; smelting-the new metals
POWER PRODUCTION: Capital saving; new generators; power storage;
the application of power; hydrodynamics-rocket flight
ENGINEERING: Rational mechanism; intelligent machinery; civil engeneering
CHEMICAL INDUSTRY: Planning substances for needs; food production; drugs; cosmetics; wastes; new materials; new processes

TRANSPORT: Air transport; comfort in travel; goods transport; further possibilities
DISTRIBUTION: Food; commodities
COMMUNICATION: Elimination of drudgery; automatism
ADMINISTRATION AND CONTROL
GENERAL EFFECTS OF SCIENCE: Man's major tasks; the fulfilment of science or its frustration; the rejection of utopias; a new civilizatiion- freedom and struggle; faith in Man
SCIENCE AND SOCIETY
CHAPTER XV. SCIENCE AND SOCIAL TRANSFORMATION SOCIAL CONDITIONS AND SCIENCE
How SCIENCE CHANGES SOCIETY: Influence on productive methods; consciousness of frustration
THE SCIENTIFIC WORKER OF TO-DAY: Economic dependence; the tendency to conform; the scientific bent; science and religion; narrowness of vision; the gerontocracy of science
THE SCIENTIST AS CITIZEN: The impact of events; the crisis; 'the Five-Year Plan; Marxism and the History of Science; the coming of Fascism; the scientists' reaction; preparation for war
SOCIAL CONSCIOUSNESS: The scientist as ruler?
THE ORCANIZATION OF SCIENTISTS: The recognition of social responsibility; Associations of Scientific Workers
SCIENCE AND POLITICS: Neutrality impossible; the popular opinion of science; science and democracy; the Popular Front; how the scientist can help

CHAPTER XVI. THE SOCIAL FUNCTION OF SCIENCE
THE MAJOR TRANSFORMATIONS OF HISTORY: Society and civilization; the Scientific Revolution-the rBle of Capitalism; the social implications of science; the tasks of science in the transition period; preventible evils; discovery and satisfaction of needs
SCIENCE AND CULTURE
THE TRANSFORMATION OF SCIENCE: The problem of the origin of new things; dialectical materialism; the extension of rationality; the trend of the future; science as Communism


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