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Re-thinking Intellectual Property
The political economy of copyright protection in the digital era
Ort: Verl.:
Copyright laws and Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) now play an increasingly important role in the creation of business fortunes, the access to and dissemination of knowledge, and human development in general. As a global issue in the digital age, ensuring that copyright laws and IPRs strike a sound balance is an important challenge for policy- and law-makers to address.

This book critically examines the current copyright and IPR regime in the context of digitalisation, knowledge economy and globalisation. Referring to international IP consensus, recent developments in regional IP forums and the successful experiences of various countries, Tian provides specific theoretical, policy and legislative suggestions for addressing current copyright challenges. This book contends that each nation should strengthen the co-ordination of its IP protection and development strategies, adopting a more systematic and heterogeneous approach, in order to make sure that IP theory, policy, specific legal mechanisms, marketing forces and all other available measures work collectively to deal with digital challenges and in a way that contributes to the establishment of a knowledge equilibrium international society. (Verlag)

Background: law and digital challenges 1
1 Introduction 3
2 Development of communication technology and international copyright laws in the context of globalisation 11
2.1 Introduction 11
2.2 An overview of the development of communication technology and its impacts 13
2.2.1 Development of communication technology and its impacts (the 1442s to the 1970s) 13
2.2.2 Development of digital technology and its impacts (post 1970s) 15
2.3 An overview of the development of international copyright legislation 22
2.3.1 Berne Convention 22
2.3.2 TRIPS 27
2.3.3 WIPO Internet treaties 35
2.4 New development and opinions of international forums 41
2.4.1WIPO Digital Agenda 1999 41

2.4.2 UNDP Report 2003 – Call on TRIPS alternatives 42
2.4.3 Development Agenda for WIPO 2004 44
2.4.4 Summary 47
2.5 Rise of regionalism: IP-related bilateral and regional trade agreements 48
2.5.1 IP-related RTAs in which the US is a party: IP and trade agreement 48
2.5.2 Other IP-related RTAs 55
2.5.3 Summary 56
2.6 Conclusion and remarks on Chapter 2 56

Knowledge equilibrium paradigm: IP theories and copyright policies 59
3 Knowledge divide vs. knowledge equilibrium 61
3.1 Introduction 61
3.2 IP theories and causes of knowledge divide 64
3.2.1 Knowledge, knowledge economy and IP theories 65
3.2.2 Intellectual products, IPR and knowledge divide 70
3.3 IP divergence and essential causes for copyright imbalances 77
3.3.1 IP divergence: three common approaches 77
3.3.2 Yin-Yang philosophy: power imbalance vs.copyright imbalance 82
3.3.3 Inequalities of power vs. democratic balancing regime 83
3.3.4 IP standard setting process vs. democracy:forum-shifting strategy in TRIPS and DMCA 85
3.3.5 Summary: two balancing mechanisms 90
3.4 A knowledge equilibrium framework (a political economy of intellectual property in the digital era) 92
3.4.1 Perspective/notion of knowledge equilibrium:equilibrium between copyright, knowledge and power 92

3.4.2 Main objectives of knowledge equilibrium theoretical framework/paradigm 93
3.4.3 A framework/paradigm of knowledge equilibrium society (implication and goals for capacity building) 95
3.5 Obstacles and possibilities of establishing a KE society 111
3.5.1 Obstacles to establishing a KE society 112
3.5.2 Advantages and possibilities of establishing a KE society 113
3.6 Some principles/strategies for implementing the KE framework/paradigm 117
3.6.1 Regionalism as second-best approach 117
3.6.2 Domestic solutions and developmental independence 120
3.6.3 Feasibility and flexibility 121
3.6.4 An open KE framework 123
3.7 Conclusion and remarks on Chapter 3 123
4 IP trade conflicts and proper digital copyright policies 125
4.1 Introduction 125
4.2 Technology, copyright protection and potential IP trade wars 127
4.2.1 Digital technology vs. widespread piracy 127
4.2.2 Responses for digital challenges and potential trade wars/sanctions 129
4.3 Historical review: bilateral (China-US) IP conflicts and changes of copyright policies 131
4.3.1 US copyright history: protectionist copyright policies and underlying business incentives 131
4.3.2 China copyright history: development of copyright laws and external/internal pressures 139
4.3.3 Reasons for successfully avoiding IP trade wars and China′s positive post-WTO copyright policy 146
4.4 Establishment of proper copyright policy: copyright and development 155

4.4.1 Classifying and prioritising problems 156
4.4.2 Sustainable copyright protection: copyright policy and development/trade policy 158
4.4.3 Failed myth of development: copyright policy vs. technology policy 161
4.4.4 More systematic and collaborative copyright policies 163
4.5 Some strategies for the policy implementation 165
4.5.1 Variety and flexibility: implementation of policy framework 165
4.5.2 Domestic approach plus regionalism approach 166
4.6 Conclusion and remarks on Chapter 4 168

Application of theory and policy: knowledge equilibrium and future digital legislative reform (templates/law models) 171
5 Templates/law models for ISP liability and their implementation 175
5.1 Introduction 175
5.2 Overview of international ISP safe harbour legislation 176
5.3 Vertical approach: US ISP legislative model 177
5.3.1 Scope of protections 177
5.3.2 Conditions for eligibility and their applications 180
5.3.3 Other relevant implementation provisions 185
5.3.4 Summary and comments on the US model 187
5.4 Horizontal approach: the EU and the Japanese ISP legislative models 190
5.4.1 EU′s horizontal ISP legislative approach 191
5.4.2 More balanced ISP legislative model in Japan 192
5.4.3 Summary and comments on the Japanese ISP model 194
5.5 Free Trade Agreement and ISP safe harbour legislative reform: Australia as an example 195

5.5.1 ISP safe harbour provisions in the DAA 196
5.5.2 New requirements under the FTA 199
5.5.3 Problems and recommendations 200
5.5.4 General lessons for other nations 210
5.6 Conclusion and remarks on Chapter 5 212
6 Templates/law models for anti-circumvention measures and their implementation 214
6.1 Introduction 214
6.2 International anti-circumvention laws 216
6.3 US anti-circumvention rules in the DMCA and their application 217
6.3.1 Background 218
6.3.2 Provisions for banning the acts of circumventing access-controls (Rule I) 220
6.3.3 Anti-device provisions 221
6.3.4 Exceptions for anti-circumvention rules 224
6.4 The problems with the US anti-circumvention rules 227
6.4.1 General problems and why there is a need for anti-device rules 228
6.4.2 Problem I: fair use vs. different treatments in anti-circumvention rules 230
6.4.3 Problem II: overly narrow exceptions and lack of a general purpose exception for other legitimate reasons 232
6.4.4 Problem III: ′para-copyright′ provisions and misuse of anti-circumvention rights 234
6.5 Future anti-circumvention rules: KE goals and heterogeneous solutions 238
6.5.1 Broader exceptions: fair circumvention doctrine (a statutory/common law solution) 238
6.5.2 Controlling technological measures to protect users: proposed legal solutions and market forces 241
6.5.3 Predictable problems on enforcement of new doctrine and possible legal solutions 243
6.5.4 General advice for future legislators and the multi-level role of copyright law in future legal reform 245

6.5.5 Impacts of FTAs on anti-circumvention laws and general lessons for other nations 246
6.6 Conclusion and remarks on Chapter 6 248
7 Templates/law models for database protection and their implementation 250
7.1 Introduction 250
7.2 Traditional copyright law on database protection and needs for sui generis database legislation 252
7.2.1 Database protection in the existing international intellectual property/copyright treaties 252
7.2.2 A quick review of US copyright law on database protection 253
7.2.3 Development of technology and needs for sui generis database protection 257
7.3 Existing sui generis database legislative models and general criticisms 263
7.3.1 The EU database legislative model 263
7.3.2 Proposed WIPO database treaty 272
7.3.3 Development of database legislation in the US 273
7.3.4 Criticisms and compromises (property right model vs. tort law/unfair competition law model) 278
7.4 Specific problems of sui generis database law and recommendations 283
7.4.1 Specific legal problems in these two bills and recommendations 283
7.4.2 Re-examining the EU reciprocal protection provision and lessons for other nations 292
7.5 Conclusion and remarks on Chapter 7 297
8 Conclusion 300

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