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Literatur zur Politischen Ökonomie
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Chandler (2004): Scale and Scope
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Titel:
Scale and Scope
Untertitel:
The Dynamics of Industrial Capitalism,
erstmals:
1990
Ort: Verl.:
Jahr:
2004
Aufl.:
7. Auflage
s. Dokument:
 
Faksimile:
Kleinbild
Deskribierung:
Inhalt:
PART I
Introduction: Scale and Scope
1 The Modem Industrial Enterprise
2 Scale, Scope, and Organizational Capabilities
The New Institution 14
Historical Attributes 18
Economies of Scale and Scope in Production 21
Economies of Scale and Scope in Distribution 28
Building the Integrative Hierarchy 31
First-Mover Advantages and Oligopolistic Competition 34
Continuing Growth of the Modern Enterprise 36
Horizontal and Vertical Combination 37
Geographical Expansion and Product Diversification 38
The Modern Enterprise in Labor-Intensive Industries 45

PART II
The United States: Competitive Managerial Capitalism 47
3 The Foundations of Managerial Capitalism in American Industry 51
The Domestic Market 51
The Impact of the Railroads and Telegraph 53
The Revolution in Distribution 58
The Revolution in Production 62
Branded, Packaged Products 63
Mass-Produced Light Machinery 65
Electrical Equipment 68
Industrial Chemicals 69
Metals 70
Merger, Acquisition, and Rationalization 71
Political and Legal Responses 78
The Response of Financial Institutions 79
The Response of Educational Institutions 82
The Coming of Competitive Managerial Capitalism 84
4 Creating Organizational Capabilities: Vertical Integration and Oligopolistic Competition 90
Oil: From Monopoly to Oligopoly 92
Creating the Monopoly 92
Changing Markets and Sources of Supply 96
Vertical Integration and Oligopolistic Competition 97
Rubber: A Stable Oligopoly 105
Industrial Materials: Evolutionary and Revolutionary Technological Change 110
Paper 112
Stone, Clay, Glass, and Cement 113
Fabricated Metals 119
Primary Metals: Technology and Industrial Concentration 121
Aluminum 122
Copper and Other Nonferrous Metals 124
Steel 127
Major Trends 140
5 Expanding Organizational Capabilities: Investment Abroad and Product Diversification in Food and Chemicals 146
Branded, Packaged Products: Foods, Consumer Chemicals, Tobacco 147
General Characteristics 147
Selecting the Players, 1880 to World War I 149
Continuing Investment in Marketing and Distribution 155
Expansion through Direct Investment Abroad 157
Continuing Growth through Diversification 161
Diversification through Merger 165
Perishable Products 166
Scope-Related Growth 168
Industrial Chemicals 170
General Characteristics 170
The Players Selected 172
Continuing Growth through Diversification 175
Diversification through Merger 178
The Du Pont Example 181
Diversification, Organizational Complexity, and Managerial Control 188
6 Expanding Organizational Capabilities: Investment Abroad and
Product Diversification in Machinery 194
General Characteristics 194
Nonelectrical Machinery 196
The Players Selected 196
Continuing Growth through Expansion Abroad 199
Growth through Diversification 201
Transportation Equipment 205
The Players Selected 205
Expansion Abroad 208
Growth through Diversification 209
Electrical and Electronic Equipment 212
The Players Selected 212
Expansion Abroad 216
Growth through Diversification 217
Organizational Complexities and Managerial Control 221
The Dynamics of Modern Industrial Enterprise: The American
Experience 224

PART III
Great Britain: Personal Capitalism
7 The Continuing Commitment to Personal Capitalism in British Industry 239
Underlying Differences 239
Prototypes of British Industrial Enterprise: Cadbury Brothers and Imperial Tobacco 242
Domestic and Foreign Markets 249
The Impact of the Railroads 252
The Revolution in Distribution 255
The Revolution in Production 261
Entrepreneurial Success: Branded, Packaged Products 262
Entrepreneurial Success: Rubber, Glass, Explosives, Alkalies, and Fibers 268
Entrepreneurial Failure: Machinery, Electrical Equipment, Organic Chemicals, Electrochemicals, and Metals 274
Accounting for Entrepreneurial Failure 284
Growth through Merger and Acquisition, British Style 286
Continuing Dominance of Personal Management 291
8 Creating Organizational Capabilities: Success and Failure in the Stable Industries 295
The Impact of World War I 295
The Modern Industrial Enterprise during the Interwar Years 297
Oil: The Creation of Organizational Capabilities 298
Rubber: The Enhancement of Organizational Capabilities 304
Industrial Materials: Organizational Capabilities Constrained by the Ways of Personal Management 306
Rayon 306
Stone, Clay, and Glass 311
Paper 314
Metal Fabricating 316
Metal Making 320
Textiles 332
Costs of the Failure to Develop Organizational Capabilities 334
9 Creating Organizational Capabilities: Success and Failure in the Dynamic Industries 337
Machinery 338
Nonelectrical Machinery: Continuing Foreign Dominance 339
Transportation Equipment 340
Electrical Equipment: Catching Up 348
Industrial Chemicals 356
The Personally Managed Firms 356
Imperial Chemical Industries: Organizational Achievement 358
Branded, Packaged Products 366
The Bastion of the Family Firm 367
Expansion Overseas and Product Diversification 371
Perishable Products 375
Unilever: From Personal to Collective Management 378
Implications of the British Experience 389

PART IV
Germany: Cooperative Managerial Capitalism 393
10 The Foundations of Managerial Capitalism in German Industry 397
Similarities and Differences 397
Two German Industrial Enterprises: Gebrüder Stollwerck and Accumulatoren-Fabrik AG 398
Domestic and Foreign Markets 409
The Impact of the Railroads 411
The Railroads and the New Financial Institutions 415
Changes in Distribution 419
The Legal and Educational Environment 423
The Coming of Cooperative Managerial Capitalism 426
11 Creating Organizational Capabilities: The Lesser Industries 428
The Second Industrial Revolution 428
Branded, Packaged Products: Limited Entrepreneurial Response 430
Other Lesser Industries: Effective Entrepreneurial Response 434
Oil: Late Challengers 435
First Movers, European Style: Rubber, Rayon, Alkalies, and Explosives 441
First Movers, American Style: Light, Mass-Produced Machinery 446
The German Entrepreneurial Response in the Lesser Industries 452
Textiles: A Labor-Intensive Industry 453
12 Creating Organizational Capabilities: The Great Industries 456
Nonelectrical Machinery: Exploiting Economies of Scope 456
Electrical Machinery: Exploiting Economies of Scale and Scope 463
Siemens and AEG: Creating Industrial Giants 464
Merger and Rationalization 467
Chemicals: Exploiting Economies of Scope 474
The Dye Makers: Creating Capabilities 474
The Dye Makers: Interfirm Cooperation 479
Other World Leaders in Pharmaceuticals, Agricultural Chemicals, and Electrochemicals 481
Metals: Exploiting Economies of Scale 486
First Movers in Nonferrous Metals 486
Steel: Europe's Leaders 488
Organizational Capabilities and Industrial Power 496
13 War and Crises: Recovery in the Lesser Industries 503
War and Postwar Crises 504
Impact on Interfirm Relationships 506
The Growth of I. G. 's and Konzerne 506
The Changing Role of Banks 512
Recovery in the Lesser Industries after Stabilization 513
Branded, Packaged Products and Textiles: Weak Recovery 514
Oil: Dismemberment 519
Rubber, Rayon, Alkalies, Explosives and Light Machinery: Strong Recovery 521
Transportation Equipment: A New Start 527
Recovery as a Function of Organizational Capabilities 531
14 Recovery in the Great Industries 534
Nonelectrical Industrial Machinery: Revival and Rationalization 535
Electrical Machinery 538
Rapid Recovery and Continued Modernization 539
The Evolving Structure of the Leaders 543
Metals 550
Steel: Merger, Rationalization, and Restructuring 550
Nonferrous Metals: The Return of Metallgesellschaft 561
Chemicals 563
Tpe Formation of I. G. Farben 564
Rationalization at I. G. Farben 569
I.G. Farben's Changing Structure: Failure to Achieve Overall Control 573
The Independents 584
The German Experience: The Evolution of Cooperative Managerial Capitalism 587
Conclusion: The Dynamics of Industrial Capitalism
Organizational Capabilities as the Core Dynamic 594
First Movers and Challengers 597
Challengers from Abroad and from Other Industries 601
Post-World War II Developments 605
The Transformation of the Global Economy 606
Continuing Role of the Modem Industrial Enterprise 608
Continuing Growth 612
A New Era of Managerial Capitalism? 621


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