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UNCTAD (2011): World Investment Report
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Titel:
World Investment Report 2011
Untertitel:
Non-Equity Modes of International Production and Development
Ort: Verl.:
Jahr:
2011
Deskribierung:
Inhalt:
PREFACE iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . iv
ABBREVIATIONS ix
KEY MESSAGES .x
OVERVIEW . xii

CHAPTER I. GLOBAL INVESTMENT TRENDS . 1
A. GLOBAL TRENDS AND PROSPECTS: RECOVERY OVER THE HORIZON2
1. Overall trends .2
a. Current trends .3
b. FDI by sector and industry .8
c. FDI by modes of entry 10
d. FDI by components 11
e. FDI by special funds: private equity and sovereign wealth funds 13
2. Prospects .16
B. FDI AS EXTERNAL SOURCES OF FINANCE TO DEVELOPING COUNTRIES21
C. FURTHER EXPANSION OF INTERNATIONAL PRODUCTION 24
1. Accelerating internationalization of firms .24
2. State-owned TNCs .28
a. The universe of State-owned TNCs .28
b. Trends in State-owned TNCs′ FDI 32
c. Issues related to corporate governance .34

CHAPTER II. REGIONAL INVESTMENT TRENDS . 39
A. REGIONAL TRENDS 40
1. Africa .40
a. Recent trends .40
b. Intraregional FDI for development 42
2. South, East and South-East Asia 45
a. Recent trends .45
b. Rising FDI from developing Asia: emerging diversified industrial patterns 47
3. West Asia 52
a. Recent trends .52
b. Outward FDI strategies of West Asian TNCs 53
4. Latin America and the Caribbean 58
a. Recent trends .58
b. Developing country TNCs′ inroads into Latin America .60
5. South-East Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States 63
a. Recent trends .63
b East–South interregional FDI: trends and prospects 65
6. Developed countries 69
a. Recent trends .69
b. Bailing out of the banking industry and FDI .71
B. TRENDS IN STRUCTURALLY WEAK, VULNERABLE AND SMALL ECONOMIES. 74
1. Least developed countries 74
a. Recent trends .74
b. Enhancing productive capacities through FDI .76
2. Landlocked developing countries .79
a. Recent trends .79
b. Leveraging TNC participation in infrastructure development82
3. Small island developing States .85
a. Recent trends .85
b. Roles of TNCs in climate change adaptation .87

CHAPTER III. RECENT POLICY DEVELOPMENTS 93
A. NATIONAL POLICY DEVELOPMENTS.94
1. Investment liberalization and promotion .95
2. Investment regulations and restrictions 96
3. Economic stimulus packages and State aid .98
B. THE INTERNATIONAL INVESTMENT REGIME.100
1. Developments in 2010 .100
2. IIA coverage of investment 102
C. OTHER INVESTMENT-RELATED POLICY DEVELOPMENTS .103
1. Investment in agriculture .103
2. G-20 Development Agenda .104
3. Political risk insurance .104
D. INTERACTION BETWEEN FDI POLICY AND INDUSTRIAL POLICY .105
1. Interaction at the national level .105
2. Interaction at the international level 107
3. Challenges for policymakers .109
a. ″Picking the winner″ .109
b. Nurturing the selected industries .109
c. Safeguarding policy space .110
d. Avoiding investment protectionism 110
e. Improving international coordination 110
E. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY 111
1. Taking stock of existing CSR standards .111
a. Intergovernmental organization standards .111
b. Multi-stakeholder initiative standards .112
c. Industry association codes and individual company codes .112
2. Challenges with existing standards: key issues .113
a. Gaps, overlaps and inconsistencies .113
b. Inclusiveness in standard-setting .114
c. Relationship between voluntary CSR standards and national legislation 114
d. Reporting and transparency .114
e. Compliance and market impact .114
f. Concerns about possible trade and investment barriers .115
3. Policy options .117
a. Supporting CSR standards development117
b. Applying CSR to public procurement policy 117
c. Building capacity 117
d. Promoting CSR disclosure and responsible investment 118
e. Moving from soft law to hard law .118
f. Strengthening compliance promotion mechanisms among
intergovernmental organization standards .118
g. Applying CSR to investment and trade promotion and enterprise development .119
h. Introducing CSR into the international investment regime .119

CHAPTER IV. NON-EQUITY MODES OF INTERNATIONAL PRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT 123
A. THE GROWING COMPLEXITY OF GLOBAL VALUE CHAINS AND TNC GOVERNANCE 124
1. TNC value chains and governance choices 124
2. Defining features of NEMs .127
B. THE SCALE AND SCOPE OF CROSS-BORDER NEMs130
1. The overall size and growth of cross-border NEMs132
2. Trends and indicators by type of NEM.133
a. Contract manufacturing and services outsourcing 133
b. Franchising138
c. Licensing.139
d. Other modalities140
C. DRIVERS AND DETERMINANTS OF NEMs.142
1. Driving forces behind the growing importance of NEMs .142
2. Factors that make countries attractive NEM locations 144
D. DEVELOPMENT IMPLICATIONS OF NEMs147
1. Employment and working conditions 147
2. Local value added 153
3. Export generation .155
4. Technology and skills acquisition by NEMs 157
5. Social and environmental impacts 160
6. Long-term industrial capacity-building161
E. POLICIES RELATED TO NON-EQUITY MODES OF INTERNATIONAL PRODUCTION.165
1. Embedding NEM policies in development strategies 165
2. Domestic productive capacity-building 166
a. Entrepreneurship policy 167
b. Education 167
c. Enhancing technological capacities .167
d. Access to finance .168
3. Facilitation and promotion of NEMs 169
a. Setting up an enabling legal framework .169
b. The role of investment promotion agencies .169
c. Home-country policies .170
d. International policies .170
4. Addressing potential negative effects of NEMs .171
a. Strengthening the bargaining power of domestic firms .171
b. Addressing competition concerns.172
c. Labour issues and environmental protection .173
REFERENCES 177
ANNEX TABLES . 185
SELECTED UNCTAD PUBLICATIONS ON TNCS AND FDI 226

Boxes
I.1. Why are data on global FDI inflows and outflows different?.6
I.2. FDI flows and the use of funds for investment.12
I.3. Forecasting global and regional flows of FDI 17
I.4 Effects of the natural disaster on Japanese TNCs and outward FDI.19
I.5. FDI and capital controls 23
I.6. Recent trends in internationalization of the largest financial TNCs in the world .26
I.7. What is a State-owned enterprise: the case of France .29
II.1. The Arab Spring and prospects for FDI in North Africa 43
II.2. China′s rising investment in Central Asia .66
II.3. Russian TNCs expand into Africa .67
II.4. Overcoming the disadvantages of being landlocked: experience of Uzbekistan in attracting
FDI in manufacturing .81
II.5. Natural resource-seeking FDI in Papua New Guinea: old and new investors.88
II.6. TNCs and climate change adaptation in the tourism industry in SIDS 89
III.1. Examples of investment liberalization measures in 2010–2011 96
III.2. Examples of investment promotion measures in 2010–2011 97
III.3. Examples of new regulatory measures affecting established foreign investors
in 2010–2011 98
III.4. Examples of entry restrictions for foreign investors in 2010–2011 .99
III.5. EU FDI Policymaking 101
III.6. WTO TRIMS Agreement 108
III.7. The 10 principles of the UN Global Compact 112
III.8. Impact investing: achieving competitive financial returns while maximizing
social and environmental impact 119
IV.1. The evolution of retail franchising in transition economies .127
IV.2. Methodological note .131
IV.3. The use of management contracts in the hotel industry .141
IV.4 Employment impact in developing countries of NEMs in garment and
footwear production 149
IV.5. Labour conditions in Foxconn′s Chinese operations – concerns and corporate
responses 151
IV.6. Cyclical employment in contract manufacturing in Guadalajara 152
IV.7. Value capture can be limited: iPhone production in China156
IV.8. Managing the environmental impact of contract farming162
IV.9. From contract manufacturing to building brands – the Chinese white goods sector163
IV.10. NEMs as catalysts for capacity-building and development164
IV.11. Educational reforms in Viet Nam promote entrepreneurship.167
IV.12. Providing access to finance for SMEs engaging in franchising activities.169
IV.13. Pre-contractual requirements in franchising.172


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